2009年6月30日 星期二


文獻來源: Owens GL, Windsor DJ, Mui J, Taylor JS. 2009. A Fish Eye Out of Water: Ten Visual Opsins in the Four-Eyed Fish, Anableps anableps. PLoS One 4(6): e5970. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0005970

The “four-eyed” fish Anableps anableps has numerous morphological adaptations that enable above and below-water vision. Here, as the first step in our efforts to identify molecular adaptations for aerial and aquatic vision in this species, we describe the A. anableps visual opsin repertoire. We used PCR, cloning, and sequencing to survey cDNA using unique primers designed to amplify eight sequences from five visual opsin gene subfamilies, SWS1, SWS2, RH1, RH2, and LWS. We also used Southern blotting to count opsin loci in genomic DNA digested with EcoR1 and BamH1. Phylogenetic analyses confirmed the identity of all opsin sequences and allowed us to map gene duplication and divergence events onto a tree of teleost fish. Each of the gene-specific primer sets produced an amplicon from cDNA, indicating that A. anableps possessed and expressed at least eight opsin genes. A second PCR-based survey of genomic and cDNA uncovered two additional LWS genes. Thus, A. anableps has at least ten visual opsins and all but one were expressed in the eyes of the single adult surveyed. Among these ten visual opsins, two have key site haplotypes not found in other fish. Of particular interest is the A. anableps-specific opsin in the LWS subfamily, S180γ, with a SHYAA five key site haplotype. Although A. anableps has a visual opsin gene repertoire similar to that found in other fishes in the suborder Cyprinodontoidei, the LWS opsin subfamily has two loci not found in close relatives, including one with a key site haplotype not found in any other fish species. A. anableps opsin sequence data will be used to design in situ probes allowing us to test the hypothesis that opsin gene expression differs in the distinct ventral and dorsal retinas found in this species.

圖片連結: ryanphotographic.com (photo credit: Paddy)


文獻來源: Hagman M, Phillips BL, Shine R. 2009. Fatal attraction: adaptations to prey on native frogs imperil snakes after invasion of toxic toads. Proceedings of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences 276 (1668): 2813-2818. [摘要下載]

Adaptations that enhance fitness in one situation can become liabilities if circumstances change. In tropical Australia, native snake species are vulnerable to the invasion of toxic cane toads. Death adders (Acanthophis praelongus) are ambush foragers that (i) attract vertebrate prey by caudal luring and (ii) handle anuran prey by killing the frog then waiting until the frog's chemical defences degrade before ingesting it. These tactics render death adders vulnerable to toxic cane toads (Bufo marinus), because toads elicit caudal luring more effectively than do native frogs, and are more readily attracted to the lure. Moreover, the strategy of delaying ingestion of a toad after the strike does not prevent fatal poisoning, because toad toxins (unlike those of native frogs) do not degrade shortly after the prey dies. In our laboratory and field trials, half of the death adders died after ingesting a toad, showing that the specialized predatory behaviours death adders use to capture and process prey render them vulnerable to this novel prey type. The toads' strong response to caudal luring also renders them less fit than native anurans (which largely ignored the lure): all toads bitten by adders died. Together, these results illustrate the dissonance in behavioural adaptations that can arise following the arrival of invasive species, and reveal the strong selection that occurs when mutually naive species first interact.

圖片連結: Reedy's Reptiles


Moenkhausia phaeonota 金帶費洛塔燈 x 3
Hyphessobrycon elachys (?) 大帆月光燈 x 5 (中圖)(不是台族水族進口的那隻新月光鼠燈)
Characidae sp. 金背橘紅魔鬼燈 x 5 (日名: イエローフィンラピス・テトラ)
Bryconops sp. 雜燈 x 好多
Corydoras oiapoquensis 奧柏根鼠 x 1
Corydoras hastatus 月光鼠 x 15
Corydoras orcesi (Peru) 奧希斯鼠 x 1
Corydoras semiaquilus 黑影鼠III(尾斑)型 x 3
Corydoras "Guarana" 大點葛蓮納鼠 x 2
Corydoras "Guarana" 細點葛蓮納鼠 x 2
Trachycorystes trachycorystes 黑魔鯨 x 1
Oryzias mekongensis 湄公河紅尾青鱂 x 20 (日名: オリジアス・メコネンシス)

魚隻來源: 石頭水族 & APT, 華洋水族
圖片連結: Petland Tropical

2009年6月29日 星期一


黑雷鬼燈是石頭水族與APT近日進口的脂鯉. 在報價單上所顯示的屬名是Inpaichthys, 也就是藍國王燈所屬的類群, 不過仔細觀察可以發現這個種並沒有脂鰭, 因此這條魚雖然在體型與花紋的排列上類似Inpaichthys, 但是屬於這個類群的可能性很小. 今天偶爾讀到文獻, 發現這條魚看起來是非常近似產於巴西塔巴赫斯河上游的Hasemania nambiquara (Bertaco & Malabarba, 2007, Copeia 2007(2): 350-354.). Bertaco & Malabarba也討論了缺乏脂鰭這個特徵在脂鯉科內可能具有好幾個獨立演化的起源, 雖然這條魚與傳統上認知的Hasemania不是很像, 但是這是目前最適合放置nambiquara這個物種的屬. 至於黑雷鬼燈是否就是nambiquara則需要仔細的形態比對.

圖片連結: 石頭水族 & APT


這是近日石頭水族與APT進口的脂鯉 (參考蝦米的討論). 其實所謂的費洛塔燈在過去並不是沒有進口過, 但是這隻"金帶"的是怎麼一回事呢? 首先, 費洛塔燈的學名似乎常常被誤拼, 正確的拼寫是Moenkhausia phaeonota, 而不是Moenkhausia phaenota. 誤拼的phaenota似乎比較常出現在中文網頁, 這很可能是因為進口報單打錯造成的流傳. 雖然這條魚的斑紋與許多的Hyphessobrycon很類似(參考zakkycharacin), 不過在分類上它被一些學者視為Moenkhausia lepidura這個種群的成員. rva的網頁打出一條魚叫Moenkhausia sp. (日名: モンクホーシャ ファエノタ マトグロッソ産), 也就是Mato Grosse河所產的Moenkhausia phaeonota之意, 這可能就是金帶費洛塔燈被視為不同於費洛塔燈的由來之一. 然而如果閱讀William L. FInk於1979年在Breviora所發表的文章, Fink明確指出這條魚的模式產地就是Mato Grosso, 這也就是說所謂"Mato Grosso產的費洛塔燈"像是個畫蛇添足的形容.

圖片連結: rva


經濟部 公告

發文日期:中華民國 98年6月25日
發文字號:經授貿字第 09840020620號

(一)Anguilla anguilla (Entry into force delayed 18 months, i.e. until 13 March 2009)(歐洲鰻,延後18個月施行,即2009年3月13日生效),因2009年3月13日已生效,爰刪除「Entry into force delayed 18 months, i.e. until 13 March 2009(延後18個月施行,即2009年3月13日生效)」文字。
(二)刪除AVES(鳥綱)Phasianidae(雉科)附錄三項下馬來西亞列管之Arborophila campbelli等10項。
(三)刪除Tupaiidae樹鼩科及附錄二Tupaiidae spp.(樹鼩科所有種),新增附錄二SCANDENTIA spp.(樹鼩目所有種)。
(四)原列Cairina scutulata(白翼木鴨)修正為Asarcornis scutulata(白翅棲鴨)。
(五)原列Geopsittacus occidentalis(澳洲夜行鸚鵡)修正為Pezoporus occidentalis(夜鸚鵡)。
(七)刪除Corallidae紅珊瑚科之俗名Pink corals。


文獻來源: Britski HA, Caravello JC. 2009. Redescription of Parotocinclus bahiensis (Miranda-Ribeiro, 1918). Zootaxa 2143: 59-67. [摘要連結]

Microlepidogaster bahiensis Miranda-Ribeiro (1918), assigned to Parotocinclus Eigenmann & Eigenmann, 1889, by Garavello (1977), was described in a short and uninformative way which does not allow for its distinction from other species of Parotocinclus; besides, the two syntypes of the species are regarded as lost. For these reasons a neotype is herein designated and a detailed description of the species is presented based on topotypes. The species is characterized by the combination of the following features: scapular bridge almost completely exposed ventrally, arrector fossae, when present, small or very reduced; abdomen covered by 5–7 wide lateral plates on each side and very small platelets in between, leaving abundant naked areas surrounding them; a small group of larger plates in front of anus; caudal peduncle ellipsoid in cross section; total plates in median series 21–23; longitudinal series with 23–26 plates; 18–29 teeth on premaxillary and 12–24 on dentary; it can also be distinguished by its characteristic caudal-fin color pattern. Features that allow us to assign the species to Parotocinclus and a hypothesis about its relationships with other species of the genus are also presented.

2009年6月28日 星期日

Dixonius aaronbaueri - 南越寧順省庙山國家公園產碎斑蜥虎之一新種

文獻來源: Ngo TV, Ziegler T. 2009. A new species of Dixonius from Nui Chua National Park, Ninh Thuan Province, southern Vietnam (Squamata, Gekkonidae). Zoosystematics and Evolution 85(1): 117-125. [摘要下載]

A new species of the geckonid genus Dixonius is described from Nui Chua National Park, Ninh Thuan Province in southern Vietnam. The description is based on four adult specimens, two males and females each. The new species is distinguished from any other Dixonius by the combination of the following characters: maximum SVL 38.6 mm; bold dark canthal stripe terminating at back of head (occiput); more or less dark barred lips; patternless yellowish-orange back and tail; supranasals in distinct contact; 8-9 supralabials, with supralabials six or seven in midorbital position; 18-19 ventral scale rows at midbody; males with 5 precloacal pores. We further provide the first record of D. cf. vietnamensis for Ninh Thuan Province, which occurs in sympatry with the new species in coastal Nui Chua National Park. We provide first data on the natural history of the new species and a key to all five known Dixonius species (© 2009 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim)


文獻來源: WILMS, T., BÖHME, W., WAGNER, P., LUTZMANN, N. & A. SCHMITZ (2009): On the phylogeny of the genus Uromastyx Merrem, 1820 (Reptilia: Squamata: Agamidae: Uromastycinae) – Resurrection of the genus Saara Gray, 1845. – Bonner zoologische Beiträge, Bonn, 56 (1/2): 55-99. [全文下載]

We assessed the taxonomic relationships within the genus Uromastyx Merrem, 1820 using morphological and genetic methods, resuilting in the resurrection of the genus Saara Gray, 1845 for Saara hardwickii, S. asmussi and S. loricata and in changes of the taxonomic rank of Uromastyx nigriventris, U. aegyptia leptieni and U. shobraki. A synopsis of all taxa considered to be valid is provided, including differential diagnosis, description and data on their respective distribution. A key for the species of Saara and Uromastyx is presented.


文獻來源: Shwayat SN, Disi AM, Amr Z. 2009. Snakes of the genus Eirenis in Jordan (Reptilia: Squamata: Colubridae). Vertebrate Zoology 59(1): 91-101. [全文下載]

Four species of the genus Eirenis that occur in Jordan were studied. Distribution and ecology of these species was investigated. Eirenis coronella was collected from the Mediterranean and Irano-Turanean biotopes. Jordan represents the most southern range of distribution for E. decemlineata, E. lineomaculata and E. rothi. Sexual dimorphism is evident in E. rothi where as females attain larger body size, but shorter tail and accordingly higher ventral and lower caudal scales. The hemipenes of the four examined species were similar to each other; with minor differences. All have cylindrical simple hemipenis; with a single sulcus; with macro-ornamentation of large spines; also with micro-ornamentation of small spines and calyculate. Food remains from examined snakes showed that all four species feeds on arthropods (spider, centipede, scorpions, Acrididae, caterpillars and unidentifi ed beetles).

蛇皮馬甲的有效名應為Trichopodus cantoris (Günther, 1861)

文獻來源: Paepke H-J. 2009. The Nomenclature of Trichopodus pectoralis REGAN, 1910; Trichopus cantoris SAUVAGE, 1884 and Osphronemus saigonensis BORODIN, 1930 (Teleostei: Peciformes: Osphronemidae). Vertebrate Zoology 59(1): 53-60. [全文下載]

The Snake-Skin Gourami was described twice: First by GÜNTHER (1861) as Osphromenus (sic!) trichopterus var. ß cantoris. The name was used partly up to the early twenties of the last century. But already in 1905 KÖHLER elevated that taxon on species level as Osphromenus cantoris. REGAN (1910) described the same species again as Trichopodus pectoralis. Both authors (GÜNTHER and REGAN) stressed different (nuptial and non nuptial) colour pattern of the species. As Trichogaster pectoralis (REGAN, 1910) the species was known lasting for decades. With the newly reinstatement of the genus name Trichopodus for the Southeast Asian gourami species trichopterus, microlepis, leerii an cantoris the oldest name available for the Snake-Skin Gourami is Trichopodus cantoris (GÜNTHER, 1861). Trichopus cantoris SAUVAGE,1884 is most probably a junior synonym of Trichopodus leerii (BLEEKER, 1852), while Osphronemus (sic!) saigonensis BORODIN, 1930 is without question a junior synonym of Trichopodus cantoris (GÜNTHER, 1861).


所謂的黑影鼠(Corydoras semiaquilus)一向被認為是一個斑紋多變化的物種, 因此無論在國外或是台灣, 在商業上都會將商品分成好幾個"型". 但是這些"型"之間並沒有顯著的涇渭分明的差異, 也就是說, 我們仍然可以看得到斑紋上的連續變異. 例如背部的淡色帶, 體側黑色斑塊的面積與分布, 頭部花紋的紊亂程度, 以及尾鰭上斑點的發達程度. I Love Corydoras網頁上把黑影鼠分為六個型, 所謂的"原型"(其實是一個很多色型的雜匯), "精典型classic", "巴西黑影鼠Brazil", "秘魯黑影鼠BlackPeru", "超級黑影鼠Super"以及"黑影鼠五型". 台灣的盤商與媒體則是把黑影鼠分成三型, 雖然我覺得三型原來倒底是怎麼分出來的. (參考台灣鼠魚網上的一型, 二型, 與三型圖片). 至於ScotCat鯰魚星球則把這些東西都當成同一種, 並沒有分任何的型. 在市場上流通的這些鼠還與柯瑞蒂鼠(C. coriatae)以及佛列律鼠(C. fowleri)分不太出來, 因為那些花紋上的差異看起來真的只是連續變異. 而我們目前的序列分析結果也支持市面上流通的semiaquilus, coriataefowleri其實應該都是同一個種, 只是coriatae可能是個體數最少的色型, 而fowleri次之(由價錢可以反應出來). 最近石頭水族&APT所進口的"黑影鼠III型"(與過去定義的III型不太一樣)又是什麼東西呢? 這批魚有著發達的尾部粗大斑點 (參考I Love Corydoras的這張照片), 但若比較Weitzman在1964年發表此魚時所繪製的插圖來看, 其實這次進口的"黑影鼠III型"才是最接近原本採自巴西的模式標本的色型.

2009年6月27日 星期六


Macropodus hongkongensis 香港鬥魚 x 4 (真品)
Macropodus spechti (=M. concolor) 黑叉尾鬥魚 x 8 (鑑定再說, 有興趣者自己爬中國的論壇)
Anabas testudineus 攀木魚 x 1 (炸好的在這邊) (兒時夢想終於成真)
Characidium sp. 大帆黃金跳鱸 x 5 (另可參考日本aquafinan Aquarium的網頁)
Corydoras orcesi 奧希斯鼠 (秘魯) x 3
Cobitis sp. cf. granoei 圓點豹鰍 (不是薩瓦納鰍Sabanejewia屬的種類) x 3
Parabotia sp. cf. banarescui 武昌副沙鰍 x 2

大概在兩年前, 中國產的魚種, 尤其是鯉科與鰍科, 就開始進入台灣的市面. 然而我們對這些魚類是相當陌生的. 這次的中國線魚有一些有趣的種類. 鑑定那些鰍科物種並不容易, 更何況市場上賣的魚的真正採集地其實都不知道, 冒然使用什麼氣質來鑑定會非常不科學. 珍珠赤雷龍(Channa asiatica)其實就是月鱧或叫七星鱧, 過去一直有人對於使用同一種名的魚, 為啥廣東來的"看起來就比台灣的美", 難道是因為有搭過船還是飛機所以變美嗎? 其實基隆女中早就對這個問題做過科學展覽, 她們分析cytb序列所得到的研究結果顯示廣東北部與台灣的七星鱧之間的確存有分化, 但程度其實還沒有到不同種的地步, 而台灣島內不同體色的七星鱧族群的遺傳分化也不高. 所以中國產的個體為啥會有亮晶晶的斑點, 而台灣的看起來比較台呢? 我覺得這是飼養者自由心證的問題了. 另外所謂的"白面血喉蝦虎"的學名應該是Rhinogobius duospilus, 至於R. wui則是它的次同物異名, 而且這條魚並不是首次進口到台灣. 因為台灣的吻蝦虎多樣性極高, 因此飼養外來吻蝦虎的魚友請千萬不要把任何人工飼養的吻蝦虎, 就算是台灣的, 丟到外面去也是不當的, 因為可能會改變天然的分布. 我知道有一些瘋子, 而且還是高教育高社經階級的魚友的確會把養一養不喜歡的東西往外倒, 非常任性而且討人厭. 另外, 攀木魚真的會爬樹嗎? 有很多傳說指出攀木魚會爬到樹上去, 其實是有一點誇張. 攀木魚非常擅跳, 在地上的爬行能力也很好(我剛下缸, 缸沒蓋, 牠跳出來後在三分鐘內爬了約3公尺....), 不過牠的爬樹能力並沒有得到實驗證實. Davenport & Matin (2006)的文章以觀察及實驗測試了攀木魚在陸地上的行動能力, 發現仰角約25度攀木魚大概就爬不上去了. 不過這是一條非常有意思的魚, 只是台灣的觀賞魚愛好者對這條魚的興趣可能不大.

魚隻來源: 石頭水族 & APT
圖片連結: Flickr相簿 (photo credit: megadeth731108)

2009年6月26日 星期五


文獻來源: Tan, H.H. & Kottelat, M. (2009): The fishes of the Batang Hari drainage, Sumatra, with description of six new species. Ichthyological Exploration of Freshwaters 20 (1): 13-70.

Fish surveys were conducted between 1994 and 2003 in the Batang Hari drainage, Sumatra. The fish fauna of the drainage now includes a total of 297 species of which 48 are new records (45 of them new records for Sumatra). Six new species are described in the families Cyprinidae (Crossocheilus obscurus, Osteochilus kerinciensis, Pectenocypris micromysticetus), Nemacheilidae (Nemacheilus papillos) and Cobitidae (Pangio atactos, P. bitaimac). Crossocheilus pseudobagroides, Diplocheilichthys, D. jentinkii, Osteochilus scapularis, O. vittatoides, Leptobarbus rubripinna and Rasbora hosii are revalidated. Lectotypes are designated for Labeo oblongus and Rasbora hosii. The identity of Osteochilus enneaporos, Nemacheilus longipinnis and Monotrete leiurus are discussed. A brief overview of M. leiurus suggests that M. bergii and M. ocellaris are valid species.


文獻來源: Kottelat, M. & Tan, H.H. (2009): Osteochilus flavicauda, a new species of fish from the Malay Peninsula (Teleostei: Cyprinidae). Ichthyological Exploration of Freshwaters 20 (1): 1-6. [網址]

Osteochilus flavicauda, new species, is described from the Malay Peninsula. It is distinguished by having a black midlateral stripe ending at the posterior extremity of the median caudal-fin rays and with very contrasted edges, a single tubercle at the tip of the snout, and yellow fins.


赤壁這部戲我終於看到了, 阿就, 一直笑一直笑啊~~~, 笑梗真的太多了 (不過金城武還是很帥), 配樂一整個很想弄成魔戒, 但最後變成納尼亞傳奇....甘興抱著炸彈去炸城牆讓我想到魔戒裏的半獸人火攻畫面, 張飛關羽趙子龍在八卦陣漸次亮相我還以為是Run Way咧, 志玲姐姐和張震的聲音一出現就有搞笑來亂的氣氛, 而且喔, 志玲姐姐從天上摔進屋裏, 阿那個屋頂都破了但是姐姐還是整組好好的(還有體內的胎兒), 頭髮都沒有亂哦, 後腦也沒有凹進去, 果然是俗話說的 - 人正真好啊~~~ 重點是那個烏龜. 很多笑梗都說什麼烏龜流汗是很好笑的橋段, 其實我覺得那個是還好啦~~ 我認為真正有誤的是諸葛亮和周瑜在嘴砲如何對付曹營的水軍時, 拿了兩隻龜: 一隻就是食蛇龜啊, 另一隻看起來是一般的草龜(搞不好是雜交的, 那個臉花花的好怪). 好吧, 我們姑且把食蛇龜當成陸棲龜(喻陸上的兵騎), 而草龜我們當水龜(喻曹營水軍). 張飛那個大白目因為聽不懂金城武和偉仔在講什麼, 就氣嘟嘟把草龜丟到水缸, 這時候趙薇說 -- 為什麼把山龜丟進水裏? 啊啊, 這樣就錯了啊. 如果依照劇本的話, 應該是食蛇龜被丟入水中吧. 所以是食蛇龜的戲份被刪了哭哭嗎?

2009年6月24日 星期三


Hyphessobrycon sp.1 寶石綠魔鬼燈 x 2
Hyphessobrycon sp.2 藍眼翠綠魔鬼燈 x 2
Hyphessobrycon sp.3 彩紅藍帝燈 x 2
Hyphessobrycon sp.4 金背桔紅魔鬼燈 x 4 (
日名: スーパーイエローデビルテトラ)
Hyphessobrycon sp.5 黑尾紫檸檬燈 x 2
(日名: パープルイエローフィンテトラ)
Hyphessobrycon sp.6 紫紅檸檬燈 x 2
Characidae sp. 黑雷鬼燈 x 2
Characidium sp.1 大帆黃金跳鱸 x 1
Characidium sp.2 迷你蝴蝶跳鱸"潘達納爾產" x 6
(日名: パンタナールドワーフダータ, 參考aquafin網頁)
Rhoeboides sp. cf. prognathus 銀鳞斧頭銅燈 x 2
Hemigrammus ulreyi 公主燈 x 2
Hyphessobrycon amandae 焰尾噴火燈 x 2
Hyphessobrycon amapaensis 亞瑪帕三色燈 x 2
Hyphessobrycon "Junior" 裘諾亞瑟燈 x 3
Hyphessobrycon sp. cf. melanostichos 血紅魔鬼燈 x 2
Characidae & Curimatidae sp. 森巴紅尾燈中挑出雜燈 x 13 (台族水族的魚)
Pseudohemiodon sp. cf. laticeps (or Pseudohemiodon sp. Tiger) 老虎鍬型直昇機 x 3
Parotocinclus bahiensis 幽靈小精靈 x 2
Parotocinclus maculicauda 紅尾小精靈 x 2
Parotocinclus sp. 白鑚小精靈 x 2
Corydoras semiaquilus 黑影鼠"I型" x 2
Corydoras semiaqulus 黑影鼠"III型" x 2
Corydoras oiapoquensis 奧柏根鼠 x 2
Corydoras acutus 黑鰭鼠 x 2
Aspidoras sp. "Emma" 愛瑪斑點鼠 x 4
Merodoras nheco 花木紋鐵甲貓 x 3
Entomocorus radiosus 雙星迷你虎鯨 x 5
Trachelyopterus sp. 大麥町魔鯨 (近似大豹鯨) x 2
Tetranematichthys quadrifilis 枯葉虎鯨 x 2
Steatogenys sp. cf. duidae 迷彩斑馬飛刀 x 3

[再聊....有關Hyphessobrycon, Hemigrammus, Moenkhausia, Astyanax的屬級鑑定問題....]

魚隻來源: 石頭水族 & APT, 台族水族
圖片連結: 石頭水族 & APT

2009年6月23日 星期二

2009年6月22日 星期一


文獻來源: Olsson M, Schwartz T, Uller T, Healey M. 2009. Effects of sperm storage and male colour on probability of paternity in a polychromatic lizard. Animal behaviour 77(2): 419-424. [摘要連結]

Sexual selection may take place before or after mating and may involve a large number of different mechanisms, for example, overt male aggression, mate choice, sperm competition and cryptic female choice. In most species, males show similar reproductive tactics and, hence, achieve their reproductive success in the same or a similar way. Sometimes, however, males evolve alternative reproductive tactics. One such example is the polychromatic Australian painted dragon lizard, Ctenophorus pictus, in which red males beat yellow males in staged contests for females and show different emergence patterns posthibernation in the wild with red males emerging to establish territories before yellow males do (at least in some years). Here we show that yellow males have significantly larger testes in relation to body size and condition than red males and copulate for a shorter period of time. Our mating experiments further showed that sperm storage played a significant role in male reproductive success (i.e. males sired offspring in later ovarian cycles than the one in which they actually mated). Furthermore, yellow males had a three times higher probability of paternity in some situations of sperm competition than red males, suggesting that male polymorphism may be associated with different reproductive tactics.

圖片連結: www.geckodan.com


文獻來源: Webba JK, Dua WG, Pikea DA, Shine R. 2009. Chemical cues from both dangerous and nondangerous snakes elicit antipredator behaviours from a nocturnal lizard. Animal Behaviour 77(6): 1471-1478. [摘要連結]

Many prey species use chemical cues to detect predators. According to the threat sensitivity hypothesis, prey should match the intensity of their antipredator behaviour to the degree of threat posed by the predator. Several species of previous termlizards display antipredator behaviours in the presence of snake chemical cues, but how species specific are these responses? In Australia, most snake species eat lizards, and are therefore potentially dangerous. Hence, we predicted that lizards should display generalized rather than species-specific antipredator behaviours. To test this prediction, we quantified the behavioural responses of velvet geckos, Oedura lesueurii, to chemical cues from five species of elapid snakes that are syntopic with velvet geckos but differ in their degree of danger. These five snake species included two nocturnal ambush foragers that eat geckos (broad-headed snake Hoplocephalus bungaroides, and death adder, Acanthophis antarcticus), two active foragers that eat skinks (but rarely eat geckos) and that differ in their activity times (nocturnal small-eyed snake, Cryptophis nigrescens, and diurnal whip snake, Demansia psammophis), and a nocturnal nonthreatening species that feeds entirely on blind snakes (bandy-bandy, Vermicella annulata). Geckos showed similar antisnake behaviours (tail waving, tail vibration), and a similar intensity of responses (reducing activity, freezing), to chemical cues from all five snake species, even though the snakes differed in their degree of danger and foraging modes. Our results suggest that velvet geckos display generalized antipredator responses to chemicals from elapid snakes, rather than responding in a graded fashion depending upon the degree of threat posed by a particular snake species.

圖片連結: geckosunlimited.com (photo credit: moloch)

2009年6月21日 星期日

孟加拉產大斑馬一新種 - Devario anomalus

文獻來源: Conway, KW, RL Mayden and KL Tang, 2009. Devario anomalus, a new species of freshwater fish from Bangladesh (Ostariophysi: Cyprinidae). Zootaxa 2136: 49–58. [全文下載]

Devario anomalus, new species, is described from a small coastal stream south of Cox’s Bazar, Chittagong Division, Bangladesh. The new species can be distinguished from all other species of Devario by its unique colour pattern. It is further distinguished from all congeners reported from Bangladesh by a combination of characters, including its shorter P-stripe, the presence of maxillary barbels, an ascending process on the first infraorbital, and a lower number of lateralline scales, branched dorsal-fin rays, branched anal-fin rays, and circumpeduncular scale rows.

2009年6月19日 星期五

農委會:虐殺動物 最重可罰100萬

農委會:虐殺動物 最重可罰100萬【聯合報╱記者程嘉文/即時報導】
2009.06.18 08:12 pm




【2009/06/18 聯合報】

2009年6月18日 星期四


Trachelyopterus sp. cf. Rio Xingu 木紋龍貓 x 14

這批木紋龍貓到台灣已經超過半年, 從瘦不拉機看不出來是什麼魚到現在還是...不胖. 我們曾經在1月份買過幾隻, 當時因為太瘦所以完全看不出是那一種, 目前看起來是比較接近所謂的"Rio Xingu"這個種. 進口到台灣的所有Trachelypterus (=Parauchenipterus)大多是以fisheri或是galeatus的名義輸入. 然而在鑑定上都有相當大的疑義. 其實這類魚的飼養與繁殖都非常簡單, 在三尺左右的缸中就能夠見到其交配的行為. 大型的卵粒集中產付在底床並在一週左右就能孵化.

魚隻來源: 台族水族

巴西伊瓜蘇河流域產特鯰(豹鯨)屬一新種 - Tatia jaracatia

文獻來源: Pavanelli, C.S. & Bifi, A.G. (2009): A new Tatia (Ostariophysi: Siluriformes: Auchenipteridae) from the rio Iguaçu basin, Paraná State, Brazil. Neotropical Ichthyology, 7 (2): 199-204. [全文連結]

A new species of Tatia is described from the lower rio Iguaçu basin, Paraná State, Brazil. The new species is distinguishable from congeners by having large, irregular pale blotches over dark brown base coloration, absent longitudinal stripe, caudal fin with round to striate dark brown spots over light base in adults or entirely dark in juveniles, and by having a long humeral process. Sexual dimorphism of the new species is marked by differences among genital and urinary apertures, size proportions between upper and lower lobe of caudal fin, and size, width and presence of antrorse and retrorse spines on anal-fin rays.


文獻來源: Sarmento-Soares, L.M., Lehmann A., P. & Martins-Pinheiro, R.F. (2009): Parotocinclus arandai, a new species of hypoptopomatine catfish (Siluriformes: Loricariidae) from the upper rios Jucuruçu and Buranhém, States of Bahia and Minas Gerais, Brazil. Neotropical Ichthyology, 7 (2): 191-198. [全文連結]

Parotocinclus arandai, new species of the hypoptopomatine catfish, is described from small creeks in the upper rios Jucuruçu and Buranhém basins, at the border of Brazilian States of Bahia and Minas Gerais. Parotocinclus arandai is distinguished from all congeners from the Atlantic coastal basins of southeastern and eastern Brazil, except Parotocinclus bahiensis, by having the branched rays and interradial membranes of the pectoral and pelvic fins unpigmented in ventral view. The new species is distinguished from most Parotocinclus species, by having a small eye, 14.8-19.3 mm HL (except P. maculicauda and P. planicauda) and by the presence of a tuft of hypertrophied odontodes on the supraoccipital (except P. cristatus and P. cesarpintoi). Parotocinclus arandai is further distinguished by having an abdomen extensively naked, with a mosaic of few rounded platelets of irregular size and distributed over the pre-anal region (except P. bahiensis, P. minutus, P. spilosoma, P. cearensis, P. cesarpintoi and P. prata). A detailed comparison with congeners on eastern Brazil hydrographical region is provided, and information on the species habitat is given.

Astyanax jordanensis: 巴西伊瓜蘇河流域產麗脂鯉之一新種

文獻來源: Vera Alcaraz, H.S., Pavanelli, C.S. & Bertaco, V.A. (2009): Astyanax jordanensis (Ostariophysi: Characidae), a new species from the rio Iguaçu basin, Paraná, Brazil. Neotropical Ichthyology, 7 (2): 185-190. [全文連結]

Astyanax jordanensis, new species, is described from the rio Jacu and rio das Torres, both tributaries to the lower rio Jordão, in the rio Iguaçu basin, Paraná, Brazil. The new species is a member of the A. scabripinnis species complex. Astyanax jordanensis differs from its congeners by several meristic and morphometric characters. Mature males possess bony hooks in the dorsal, pectoral, pelvic, and anal fins, and mature females have a few small bony hooks on the first rays of the anal fin. The presence of these bony hooks in females and the endemism of the ichthyofauna in the rio Jordão are discussed.


文獻來源: Zanata, A.M. & Camelier, P. (2009): Astyanax vermilion and Astyanax burgerai: new characid fishes (Ostariophysi: Characiformes) from Northeastern Bahia, Brazil. Neotropical Ichthyology, 7 (2): 175-184.

Abstract Two new Astyanax species, A. vermilion, from rio Almada and rio Cachoeira, and A. burgerai, from rio Almada, Bahia State, Brazil, are described. Astyanax vermilion is distinguished from most of its congeners and from all other Astyanax species known from northeastern Brazilian drainages by having distal portion of pelvic fins dark, a combination of sexually dimorphic characters, posteroventral portion of body and fins (except pectoral) reddish in life, and inconspicuous humeral and caudal spots. It also differs by having highest body depth just anterior of dorsal-fin origin, 32-34 lateral-line scales, and presence of one or two maxillary teeth. Astyanax burgerai is diagnosed by the presence of two vertically elongated humeral blotches, absence of a conspicuous and broad dark midlateral stripe (at least on anterior half of body), body highest along vertical slightly behind midlength of pectoral fin, 31-34 lateral-line scales, and two or three teeth on premaxillary outer series.


文獻來源: Marinho, M.M.F. & Lima, F.C.T. (2009): Astyanax ajuricaba: a new species from the Amazon basin in Brazil (Characiformes: Characidae). Neotropical Ichthyology, 7 (2): 169-174. [全文連結]

A new Astyanax species is described from several localities in the rio Negro, rio Solimões and lower rio Tapajós basins, Amazon basin, Brazil. The new species is distinguished from all remaining characids by its unique color pattern consisting of the combination of presence of a conspicuous, narrow dark midlateral stripe, a well-developed vertically-elongated dark humeral spot, and upper caudal-fin lobe and middle caudal-fin rays dark, with a rounded clear ocellated spot present at anterior third of caudal-fin lobe.

Moenkhausia forestii, 一種產於巴西巴拉圭河流域的脂鯉科新種

文獻來源: Benine, R.C., Mariguela, T.C. & Oliveira, C. (2009): New species of Moenkhausia Eigenmann, 1903 (Characiformes: Characidae) with comments on the Moenkhausia oligolepis species complex. Neotropical Ichthyology, 7 (2): 161-168. [全文連結]

A new species of Moenkhausia is described from tributaries of the rio Paraguay, Brazil. The new species is diagnosed from congeners by characters related to body coloration, the number of lateral line scales, the degree of poring of the lateral line, and number of scales rows above and below the lateral line. Molecular analyses using partial sequences of the mitochondrial gene Cytochrome Oxidase I from specimens of the new species and specimens belonging to morphologically similar species demonstrated that the new species is easily differentiated by their high genetic distance and by their position in the phylogenetic hypothesis obtained through the Maximum Parsimony methodology. The analyses of three samples of M. oligolepis also revealed that they have high genetic distances and belong to different monophyletic groups suggesting that this species corresponds to a species complex rather than a single species.

巴西亞馬遜盆地下游產脂鯉新種 - Hemigrammus arua

文獻來源: Lima, F.C.T., Wosiacki, W.B. & Ramos, C.S. (2009): Hemigrammus arua, a new species of characid (Characiformes: Characidae) from the lower Amazon, Brazil. Neotropical Ichthyology, 7 (2): 153-160. [全文連結]

A new Hemigrammus species is described from tributaries of the igarapé Juruti Grande and rio Arapiuns, lower rio Amazonas, Pará State, Brazil. The new species can be easily diagnosed from all its congeners, except from Hemigrammus stictus (Durbin), by possessing a single, large humeral spot which extends longitudinally from the fifth or sixth to the posterior margin of eighth to tenth, lateral line scales. It can be distinguished from Hemigrammus stictus by possessing a pronounced upper, anteriorlyoriented extension in the humeral blotch, conferring an inverted-comma shape to it, and by displaying a distinct life color pattern.

巴西北部辛古流域產一個新的體內授精脂鯉新種Bryconadenos weitzmani

文獻來源: Menezes, N.A., Netto-Ferreira, A.L. & Ferreira, K.M. (2009): A new species of Bryconadenos (Characiformes: Characidae) from the rio Curuá, rio Xingu drainage, Brazil. Neotropical Ichthyology, 7 (2): 147-152. [全文連結]

Abstract A second inseminating species bearing club cells organized into an anal-fin gland in sexually active males belonging to the genus Bryconadenos was recently discovered in the rio Xingu drainage and is described as new. It is distinguished from B. tanaothoros by the presence of a conspicuous dark blotch at the humeral region, and fewer scale rows between dorsal-fin origin and anal-fin origin. Males of B. weitzmani have longer pelvic fins at sizes beyond 30 mm SL. Bryconadenos weitzmani is further distinguished from B. tanaothoros by the cup shape of the anal-fin gland, its lower part much more developed than the upper, whereas in B. tanaothoros there is just a slit separating the almost equally developed upper and lower parts.

巴西Mato Grosso洲巴拉圭河流域產銀板新種 - Metynnis cuiaba

文獻來源: Pavanelli, C.S., Ota, R.P. & Petry, P. (2009): New species of Metynnis Cope, 1878 (Characiformes: Characidae) from the rio Paraguay basin, Mato Grosso State, Brazil. Neotropical Ichthyology, 7 (2): 141-146. [全文連結]

A new species of Metynnis is described from the rio Cuiabá and rio Manso drainages, in the upper rio Paraguay basin, Mato Grosso State, Brazil. This laterally compressed species, which rarely exceeds 140 mm in SL, is readily distinguished from other members of the genus Metynnis by having 100-110 lateral-line scales, 48-56 rows of scales above the lateral line, 32-36 circumpeduncular scales, 22-24 gill rakers, 38 vertebrae, singular color pattern, and relatively smaller snout, width, and head length.