文獻來源: von Rintelen K, Cai Y. 2009. Radiation of endemic species flocks in ancient lakes: systematic revision of the freshwater shrimp Caridina H. Milne Edwards, 1837 (Crustacea: Decapoda: Atyidae) from the ancient lakes of Sulawesi, Indonesia, with the description of eight new species. The Raffles Bulletin of Zoology 57(2): 343-452. [全文下載]
The ancient lakes of the Indonesian island Sulawesi harbour two endemic species flocks of the freshwater shrimp genus Caridinae (Crustacea: Decapoda: Atyidae). One of them forms the largest radiation within the genus. Species from both lake systems evolved udner similar extrinsic conditions and show some parallel patterns, e.g. the development of unusual and flamboyant colour patterns. After extensive sampling and field observations over several years, we here present the first comprehensive revision of all ancient lakes species from both lake systems. We describe eight new and synonymize one previously described species. Besdies standard morphology-based species descriptions of alcohol preserved material, we also provide ecological and behavioural data as well as colour patterns of living animals whenever available. We further use a molecular phylogeny, based on the mitochondrial genes 16S and COI, to support our morphology-based species descriptions. The revision reveals that the total number of species (21) is almost twice as high as previously described. However, there is a considerably lower number of species in Lake Poso than in the Malili lakes, which might be explained by an age difference between the two species flocks or the less pronounced geographical structure of Lake Poso. The molecular phylogeny further suggests the existence of several cryptic species. Last but not least, we hint at conservation priorities, not only for the beautiful shrimps we present in this study, but also for other organisms endemic to the ancient lakes of Sulawesi that are threatened with extinction by human impact.
Photo credit: Chris Lukhaup