Ricefishes, known best by the model organism, the medaka, Oryzias latipes Temminck & Schlegel, 1846, comprise the family Adrianichthyidae, which ranges broadly throughout fresh and brackish waters of Central, South and Southeast Asia and the Indo-Malay-Philippines Archipelago as far east as Timor. Twenty-eight Recent species are recognized here in two monophyletic genera, Adrianichthys and Oryzias. Xenopoecilus and Horaichthys are placed in synonymy of Oryzias for the first time. Adrianichthys comprises four species from Lake Poso, Sulawesi, Indonesia. Oryzias comprises 24 species that live throughout the range of the family. A fossil genus and species, †Lithopoecilus brouweri from the Miocene of central Sulawesi, is included tentatively in the Adrianichthyidae. Evidence for the sister group relationship of adrianichthyids and exocoetoids is reviewed briefly and that relationship corroborated. Monophyly of adrianichthyids is likewise strongly supported here. Species groups within Oryzias are diagnosed as monophyletic largely based on osteology, colour pattern and meristic variation. They correspond only in part to species groups previously recognized based on chromosome constitution. Miniature species do not comprise a monophyletic group; disjunct absolute size in close relatives has evolved repeatedly. Oryzias latipes is a member of a species complex that includes O. luzonensis, O. curvinotus and the miniatures O. sinensis and O. mekongensis. A new species, Oryzias bonneorum sp. nov., is described from Lake Lindu, Sulawesi, Indonesia. Lectotypes are designated for Haplochilus celebensis Weber, 1894 and Haplochilus timorensis Weber & de Beaufort, 1922. No claim to original US Government works. Journal compilation © 2008 The Linnean Society of London, Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society, 2008, 154, 494–610.