2010年1月30日 星期六

巴西辛古河與塔巴赫斯河流域產脂鯉一新種Moenkhausia pirauba, 及其與Jubiapa屬脂鯉之貝氏擬態關係

感覺上是一篇很隨便的文章, 首先這些作者除了形態測量以外, 並沒有提出證據說明為何不同河川產的"Moenkhausia pirauba"是同一個多態型物種, 而不是完全不同種, 其次是這篇文章也沒說明Moenkhausia與其它脂鯉的相似性為什麼是一種"貝氏擬態", 如果兩個很相似但在演化上不是最近緣的物種之間並沒有任何防禦機制上的差異, 且其中一個物種的利益並未建築在與另一物種相似之上, 那根本不能叫貝氏擬態. 這篇文章的審稿者看起來也是兩光.

文獻來源: Zanata AM, Birindelli JLO, Moreira CR. 2010.
New species of Moenkhausia Eigenmann (Characiformes: Characidae) from Rio Xingu and Rio Tapajós basins, Brazil, with comments on a putative case of polymorphic Batesian mimicry. Journal of Fish Biology 75(10): 2615-2628.


Abstract
A new species of Moenkhausia is described from Rio Xingu and Rio Tapajós basins, Brazil. The new species is distinguished from its congeners, except from Moenkhausia moisae, by having more scales in the lateral series, 43–47 (v. 23–41 in the remaining congeners). The new species is distinguished from M. moisae by its colour pattern, which consists of a dark midlateral stripe, and an asymmetrical caudal blotch (inconspicuous or faded in specimens from the Rio Arinos) continuous with the midlateral stripe (v. narrow dark midlateral line and conspicuous, regularly rounded and symmetrical blotch not continuous with the midlateral line). The new species is putatively assumed to be mimetic to Jupiaba apenima, in the Rio Xingu and Rio Teles Pires drainages, and to Jupiaba yarina in the Rio Arinos. The two species of Jupiaba are sympatric and remarkably similar in size, general external morphology and colouration to the new species. A small difference occurs in the colouration between the two species of Jupiaba and is also observed in the two respectively sympatric morphotypes of the new species of Moenkhausia. The occurrence of polymorphic Batesian mimicry is therefore discussed for neotropical freshwater fishes.

那些溫泉會館裏的"溫泉魚"是啥碗糕啊?

[superlink: wikipedia]
大概從2007年起, 台灣的溫泉會館就開始以"溫泉魚"來招攬顧客. 其實那些溫泉魚說穿了不過就是一些平常沒東西吃, 可以耐高溫, 然後一遇到有人下水就過來吃吃腳皮的可憐小魚. 所謂的溫泉魚一開始所指的其實是墨頭魚屬的Garra rufa, 但是台灣各溫泉會館中的溫泉魚都是些啥東東呢? 隨便從google上找了一下, 發現奇奇怪怪的東西還不少:
看了看, 還好台灣沒有業者真的以Garra rufa來攬客, 要不然我還真的很擔心又多了一個外來種了.

2010年1月29日 星期五

[好物啊]20W的LED條燈

相信我一定是後知後覺, 平日都躲在學術的象牙塔裏表人, 所以完全不知道原來LED燈已經做到這樣了. 只要家裏有一堆小缸的人一定都有"缸還是不夠多"的感歎. 這個空間上的限制其實來自於一般水族燈具(上圖)所佔據的空間使得明明可以養四層的層架讓你只能養三層. 現在有了LED條燈之後, 好像解決了耶. 近日我們裝了一些一條20W的條燈(下圖), 哇呀....一開燈, 亮到眼睛都快瞎掉了....感覺那個照明效果一整個很好很高級很時尚啊. 不過這樣的光源對於一般水草生長的效應如何還有待觀察. 如果草可以長得很好的話, 那些大大根又佔空間的水族燈管就一整個可以在論檀交流區送掉或換綠茶了....

2010-01-29新進動物與魚隻



[photo by Lori Tsai]
Caridina sp. (???) 灰藍米蝦 (這是啥) x 5
Neocaridina sp. (???) 超級蜜蜂蝦 (這是啥) x 5
Atyoida pilipes (=Atya pilipes, Atyopsis pilipes) 琥珀網球蝦 (=石紋網球蝦, 石紋匙指蝦) x 10
蘇拉維西淡水拳擊蝦 (這是啥?) x 2
Protomyzon pacychilus 厚唇原吸鰍 (=金帶雄貓爬岩鰍) x 4 (日名パンダシャークローチ)
Peckoltia lineola (=L202) 大花臉老虎(=黃彩老虎異形, 金花老虎, 翡翠老虎) x 2
L210 or L211 ??? 長腰魔幻虎斑異形 x 2Jordanella floridae 美國旗 x 12
Mastacembelus sp. 花輪棘鰍 x 4
Badis pyema 紅格變色龍 x 4

魚隻來源: 石頭水族 & APT

2010年1月28日 星期四

越南南部平順省產守宮屬一新種, Gekko laurenti

[Image reproduced with permission from Dr. Ngo Van Tri]
文獻來源: Ngo VT, Gamble T. 2010. A new species of Gekko (Squamata: Gekkonidae) from Tà Kóu Nature Reserve, Binh Thuan Province, Southern Vietnam. Zootaxa 2346: 17-28.

Abstract
A new species of Gekko Laurenti is described from Tà Kóu Mountain, an isolated granitic peak in Tà Kóu Nature Reserve, Ham Thuan Nam district, Binh Thuan province, southern Vietnam. The species is distinguished from its congeners by its moderate size, with snout to vent length (SVL) reaching a maximum 107.0 mm; dorsal pattern of 5–8 white vertebral blotches between the nape and sacrum and 6–8 pairs of short white bars on the flanks; 11–14 precloacal pores in males; 14–17 longitudinal rows of smooth dorsal tubercles; and 18–20 broad lamellae beneath the fourth toe. Gekko takouensis sp. nov. is the second endemic gekkonid discovered in the Tà Kóu Nature Reserve, Cyrtodactylus takouensis Ngo & Bauer being the first.

中國福建產蠑螈新種, 福鼎蠑螈 (Cynops fudingensis)

文獻來源: Wu Y, Wang Y, Jiang K, Hanken J. 2010. A new newt of the genus Cynops (Caudata: Salamandridae) from Fujian Province, southeastern China. Zootaxa 2346: 42-52.

Abstract
A new species of fire-bellied newt, Cynops fudingensis, is described from northeastern Fujian Province, southeastern China. This species forms a well-supported clade with C. orientalis and C. orphicus based on molecular phylogenetic analysis of nucleotide sequences from mitochondrial DNA subunit two of NADH dehydrogenase and its two flanking tRNAs. Further, its genetic distance to each of the two previously described species is large. Principal-components analysis of external linear measurements differentiates the new species from C. orientalis and C. orphicus in morphological space. Geographically, C. fudingensis occupies the distribution gap between C. orientalis and C. orphicus.

多樣化且相互衝突的性別決定機制促進東非慈鯛的物種多樣化

[superlink: http://heimrich.de, photo credit: Andreas Werth]
文獻來源: Ser JR, Roberts RB, Kocher TD. 2009. MULTIPLE INTERACTING LOCI CONTROL SEX DETERMINATION IN LAKE MALAWI CICHLID FISH. Evolution 64(2): 486-501.

Abstract
Several models have been proposed to suggest how the evolution of sex-determining mechanisms might contribute to speciation. Here, we describe the inheritance of sex in 19 fish species from the rapidly evolving flock of cichlids in Lake Malawi, Africa. We found that many of these species have a male heterogametic (XY) system on linkage group 7. Some species also segregate for a female heterogametic (ZW) system on linkage group 5 that is coincident with a dominant orange-blotch (OB) color pattern in females. The ZW system is epistatically dominant to the XY system when both are segregating within a family. Several lines of evidence suggest that additional sex-determining loci are segregating in some species. These results are consistent with the idea that genetic conflicts play an important role in the evolution of these species flocks and suggest that evolution of sex-determining mechanisms has contributed to the radiation of cichlid fish in East Africa.

於香港機場查獲的六種走私龜中所檢出十種內寄生蠕蟲

文獻來源: Murray RA. 2004. Endohelminths from six rare species of turtles (Bataguridae) from southeast Asia confiscated by international authorities in Hongkong, China. Master's thesis, Taxas A & M University.

Abstract

Specimens of 6 species of threatened, vulnerable, and endangered turtles (Cuora amboinensis, Cyclemys dentata, Heosemys grandis, Orlitia borneensis, Pyxidea mouhotii, and Siebenrockiella crassicollis) belonging to family Bataguridae, were confiscated in Hong Kong, China on 11 December 2001 by international authorities. Endohelminth studies on these turtle species are scarce, and this study provided a rare opportunity to examine a limited number of specimens for endohelminths. Ten different parasite species were collected and there were 16 new host records. This is the first record of a parasite from P. mouhotii. The parasite prevalences found in this study provide a basis for a better understanding of the phylogenetic relationships of the family Bataguridae to other families, especially Testudinidae. Based on known life cycles, parasites found provided an indication of food preferences of these 6 turtle species that support previous studies of the turtles’ feeding habits. However, the results of the parasite survey from O. borneensis provided additional feeding habit information. The list of endohelminths herein is intended to provide a foundation for future parasite studies of the 6 species of Asian turtles.

生性大膽的胖頭鱥無論在野外或實驗室條件下都會對掠食者的存在穩定展現不害怕的氣魄, 然而大膽與害羞個體無法由大小雌雄有沒有寄生蟲來判別

[superlink: i.treehugger.com]
文獻來源: Pellegrini AFA, Wisenden BD, Sorensen PW. 2010. Bold minnows consistently approach danger in the field and lab in response to either chemical or visual indicators of predation risk. Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology 64(3): 381-387.

Abstract
A behavioral syndrome is a suite of behaviors correlated across multiple social contexts. In this study, boldness in the face of predation risk was assessed twice in fish across two different sensory modalities in both the field and lab to ascertain the biological relevance and complexity of this attribute. Individual fathead minnows were captured from a natural field population using traps that either contained chemical alarm cues (conspecific skin extract) or control (well water) and their responses to the presence of predator behind a glass partition assessed in the laboratory. Although fewer fish were captured in alarm cue-labeled traps, these bold fish performed longer predator inspections than shy fish captured in control traps. Thus, a shy/bold behavioral syndrome was expressed consistently across field and lab settings in response to both chemical and visual indicators of danger. Shy and bold individuals did not differ in sex, body length, secondary sexual characteristics, or parasite load but were of more robust physical condition.

2010年1月27日 星期三

Badis dibruensis - 一種產於印度東北部迪魯的變色鱸新種

文獻來源: Geetakumari, K. & Vishwanath, W. (2010): Badis dibruensis, a new species (Teleostei: Badidae) from northeastern India. Journal of Threatened Taxa, 2 (1): 644-647. [全文下載]

Abstract
A new species of the genus Badis Hamilton is described from Dibru River, Dibrugarh, Brahmaputra basin in Assam, India. The species has the following combination of characters: a conspicuous black blotch covering the superficial part of the cleithrum above pectoral fin base, a small oval-shaped black blotch on the middle of caudal fin, two predorsal bones, interorbital width 9.9-15.0, upper jaw length 6.1-6.9, lower jaw length 7.1-8.3 and orbital diameter 7.6-9.4 % SL. The species differs from its nearest congeners, B. badis, B. kanabos and B. tuivaiei by the absence of dark black or brown vertical bars on sides. A key to species of Badis of India is provided.

分子親緣關係分析顯示台灣產的"古氏赤蛙"應為福建大頭蛙, 而正牌的古氏赤蛙產在爪哇

文獻來源: Matsui M, Kuraishi M, Jiang J-P, Ota H, Hamidy A, Orlov NL, Nishikawa K. 2010. Systematic reassessments of fanged frogs from China and adjacent regions (Anura: Dicroglossidae). Zootaxa 2345: 33-42.

Abstract
Systematic relationships of fanged frogs usually associated with Limnonectes kuhlii are assessed using 15 samples from Japan, Chinese Mainland and Taiwan, Vietnam, Laos, Thailand, Malaysia (Borneo), and Indonesia. Phylogenetic relationship inferred from the mitochondrial 12S rRNA, tRNAval, and 16S rRNA gene sequences revealed that fanged frogs sampled are not monophyletic with the topotypic L. kuhlii from Java. Samples from Yunnan of southern China (L. bannaensis), northern Laos and central Vietnam, and those from Jiangxi of eastern China (L. fujianensis), Taiwan and Japan (L. namiyei), respectively, form monophyletic groups, and are collectively sister to the Thai sample (L. megastomias). All these samples, L. fragilis from Hainan of southern China, and a group of Bornean samples show unresolved relationships with Javanese L. kuhlii. From the resultant phylogeny and genetic distances found among samples, L. "kuhlii" from Taiwan and L. fujianensis, and L. "kuhlii" from northern Laos and central Vietnam and L. bannaensis, respectively, are surmised to be conspecific. These fanged frogs are morphologically similar to, but phylogenetically distant from, L. kuhlii sensu stricto. Limnonectes namiyei, L. fujianensis, and L. bannaensis are considered to have a common ancestor whose chromosome number was 2n=22, unlike L. fragilis, L. kuhlii and many other frogs with 2n=26 chromosomes.

委內瑞拉之加勒比海側沿海溪流產大鬍子屬吸甲鯰新種 - Ancistrus falconensis

文獻來源: Taphorn DC, Armbruster JW, Rodriguez-Olarte D. 2010. Ancistrus falconensis n. sp. and A. gymnorhynchus Kner (Siluriformes: Loricariidae) from central Venezuelan Caribbean coastal streams. Zootaxa 2345: 19-32.

Abstract
A new species, Ancistrus falconensis, is described from the Hueque and Ricoa Rivers, small, isolated Caribbean drainages of northwest Falcón state, (Western Caribbean Zoogeographic Province) Venezuela and compared with A. gymnorhynchus Kner 1854 which occurs in adjacent drainages to the south. Adults of Ancistrus falconensis usually have small light spots on the abdomen in preserved specimens whereas A. gymnorhynchus almost always has the abdomen uniformly gray). They are further distinguished by the following ratios in specimens greater than 60 mm SL: mouth width/pectoral spine length (0.661–0.915 vs. 0.480–0.669, (two specimens of 88 overlap), dentary tooth cup length/pectoral spine length (0.207–0.264 vs. 0.143–0.198), and premaxillary tooth cup length/pectoral spine length (0.146–0.215 vs. 0.215–0.318). Falcón state is arid in the area of the type locality of A. falconensis, and water resources face increasing demands for urban, agricultural and industrial uses. Deforestation, river channelization and water diversion heavily impact most coastal streams, causing accelerating habitat loss and degradation. Thus, this new species must be considered vulnerable to extinction.

地圖龜雌雄體型差異懸殊而大型雌龜的熱能調節能力則較雄龜與幼年雌龜來的差

[superlink: All about]
文獻來源: Bulté G, Blouin-Demers G. 2010. Implications of extreme sexual size dimorphism for thermoregulation in a freshwater turtle. Oecologica 162(2): 313-332.

Abstract
Sexual size dimorphism (SSD) is a common phenomenon in animals. In many species females are substantially larger than males. Because body size plays a central role in modulating the body temperature (T b) of ectotherms, intersexual differences in body size may lead to important intersexual differences in thermoregulation. In addition, because SSD is realized by differences in growth rate and because growth rate is strongly temperature dependent in ectotherms, a conflict between male reproductive behaviour and thermoregulation may affect the expression of SSD. In this study, we investigated the thermal implications of SSD in a reptile exhibiting spectacular female-biased SSD: the northern map turtle (Graptemys geographica). Over three seasons, we collected >150,000 measurements of T b in free-ranging adult and juvenile northern map turtles using surgically implanted miniature temperature loggers. Northern map turtles exhibited seasonal patterns of thermoregulation typical of reptiles in northern latitudes, but we found that large adult females experienced a lower daily maximum T b and a narrower daily range of T b than adult males and small juvenile females. In addition, despite more time spent basking, large adult females were not able to thermoregulate as accurately as small turtles. Our findings strongly suggest that body size limits the ability to thermoregulate accurately in large females. By comparing thermoregulatory patterns between adult males and juvenile females of similar body size, we found no evidence that male reproductive behaviours are an impediment to thermoregulation. We also quantified the thermal significance of basking behaviour. We found, contrary to previous findings, that aerial basking allows northern map turtles to raise their T b substantially above water temperature, indicating that basking behaviour likely plays an important role in thermoregulation.

2010年1月26日 星期二

2010-01-26新進動物與魚隻

[photo by LY Lee]
Tribolonotus novaeguineae 新幾內亞鷹蜥 x 2
Trichopodus cantoris (=T. pectoralis) 蛇皮馬甲(=巨無霸黑帶蛇皮銀馬甲, 名字好威) x 2
Trichopodus trichopterus trichopterus 雙點蛇皮銀馬甲 (啊名字好威, 但其實就是青萬隆的原名亞種 - 紫萬隆啊~~~) x 7
Anabas testudineus 攀木魚 x 1 (這邊是煮好的, 我餓了)
Gymnorhamphichthys hypostomus 尖嘴帶紋飛刀* x 7
Ageneiosus sp. cf. atronasus 高翅虎鯨* (以枯葉虎鯨名義進口) x 6 (應該就是高背紫虎鯨)
Denticetopsis sp. cf. morenoi 金點藍鯨* x 2
Cetopsis sandrae 琥珀藍鯨 (=紫藍鮫鯨) x 3
Glyptothorax trilineatus 金背小鷹鴨嘴(=三線紋胸鮡) x 若干
Pseudecheneis sp. 黃金老鷹鴨嘴 (某種褶
鮡) x 1
Corydoras pulcher 仆卡鼠* x 2
Corydoras pulcher x super-schwartzi "超級仆瓦茲鼠"* x 1

今天收到那個"雙斑蛇皮馬甲"時, 喔喔, 我嚇到了, 阿不就是--萬隆(=萬龍)嗎? 阿南部溪流池塘不就很多? 但是這也讓我開始仔細想想, 萬隆(Trichoppodus trichopterus)這個歷史悠久的水族商品之人工育種進程倒底是怎麼一回事? 一般市售的萬隆有四個商品, 三星萬隆(現在已經少見), 藍萬隆(或青萬隆, 大理石萬隆), 黃金萬隆和紫萬隆(其實就是原名亞種, 也就是已在台灣歸化的那個東東). 這次進口的來源是泰國, 可能的來源是馬來半島北部或中南半島西側的族群. 一般市售的藍萬隆/金萬隆, 其實都是來自於蘇門達臘亞種sumatranus的人工育種. Jack Frankel乃是研究輻鰭魚斑紋形成的學者, 他對於萬隆這種魚的斑紋變異頗感興趣, 在1992年2005年分別撰寫文章描述這個現象. 他認為這個體色變化來自於兩個對偶基因的效應. 而金萬隆似乎來自於父本母本皆帶有兩對隱性基因組合的產物. 不過目前似乎沒有看到任何研究針對這些體色變化在各個天然的分布地間是否與族群的分化有關.

距上一次蛇皮馬甲進口到台灣可能有20年了? 這條魚養大以後變這樣.

魚隻來源: 台族水族*, 石頭水族 & APT

多鰭魚的分子親緣關係顯示草繩恐龍腹鰭的退化為一獨立事件, 而頭型的演化乃由長至短

文獻來源: Suzuki D, Brandley MC, Tokita M. 2010. The mitochondrial phylogeny of an ancient lineage of ray-finned fishes (Polypteridae) with implications for the evolution of body elongation, pelvic fin loss, and craniofacial morphology in Osteichthyes. BMC Evolutionary Biology 2010 10: 21 doi:10.1186/1471-2148-10-21

Background
The family Polypteridae, commonly known as "bichirs", is a lineage that diverged early in the evolutionary history of Actinopterygii (ray-finned fish), but has been the subject of far less evolutionary study than other members of that clade. Uncovering patterns of morphological change within Polypteridae provides an important opportunity to evaluate if the mechanisms underlying morphological evolution are shared among actinoptyerygians, and in fact, perhaps the entire osteichthyan (bony fish and tetrapods) tree of life. However, the greatest impediment to elucidating these patterns is the lack of a well-resolved, highly-supported phylogenetic tree of Polypteridae. In fact, the interrelationships of polypterid species have never been subject to molecular phylogenetic analysis. Here, we infer the first molecular phylogeny of bichirs, including all 12 recognized species and multiple subspecies using Bayesian analyses of 16S and cyt-b mtDNA. We use this mitochondrial phylogeny, ancestral state reconstruction, and geometric morphometrics to test whether patterns of morphological evolution, including the evolution of body elongation, pelvic fin reduction, and craniofacial morphology, are shared throughout the osteichthyan tree of life.

Results
Our molecular phylogeny reveals 1) a basal divergence between Erpetoichthys and Polypterus, 2) polyphyly of P. endlicheri and P. palmas, and thus 3) the current taxonomy of Polypteridae masks its underlying genetic diversity. Ancestral state reconstructions suggest that pelvic fins were lost independently in Erpetoichthys, and unambiguously estimate multiple independent derivations of body elongation and shortening. Our mitochondrial phylogeny suggested species that have lower jaw protrusion and up-righted orbit are closely related to each other, indicating a single transformation of craniofacial morphology.

Conclusion
The mitochondrial phylogeny of polypterid fish provides a strongly-supported phylogenetic framework for future comparative evolutionary, physiological, ecological, and genetic analyses. Indeed, ancestral reconstruction and geometric morphometric analyses revealed that the patterns of morphological evolution in Polypteridae are similar to those seen in other osteichthyans, thus implying the underlying genetic and developmental mechanisms responsible for those patterns were established early in the evolutionary history of Osteichthyes. We propose developmental and genetic mechanisms to be tested under the light of this new phylogenetic framework.

Nannocharax signifer - 貝寧產非洲跳鱸脂鯉(二列齒琴脂鯉科)之新種

文獻來源: Moritz T. 2010. Nannocharax signifer, a new species of fish (Characiformes: Distichodontidae) from the Ouémé River basin, Benin. Ichthyological Exploration of Freshwaters 20(4): 289-294.

Abstract
Nannocharax signifer, new species, is described from the Ouémé River basin in Benin. It is distinguished from all other Nannocharax species in West Africa by its red-orange colouration on the anterior half of the dorsal fin. Besides live colouration, the new species is diagnosed by a combination of colour pattern and scale counts.

緬甸產長吻棘鰍(象鼻龍)之分類檢討及新種背斑長吻棘鰍(M. dorsiocellatus), 線斑長吻棘鰍(M. lineatomaculatus)及孔雀長吻棘鰍(M. pavo)之描述

文獻來源: Britz R. 2010. Species of the Macrognathus aculeatus group in Myanmar with remarks on M. caudiocellatus (Teleostei: Synbranchiformes: Mastacembelidae). Ichthyological Exploration of Freshwaters 20(4): 295-308.

Abstract
The species of the Macrognathus aculeatus group from Myanmar are reviewed and three new species are described. Macrognathus dorsiocellatus, new species, previously identified as M. aral, is distinguished by rostral tooth plates 19-23, dorsal fin spines 14-22, 7-11 small ocelli along soft dorsal fin, with ventrally open, incomplete white rim; M. obscurus, new species, is distinguished by rostral tooth plates 8-10, dorsal fin spines 20-22, ocelli along dorsal fin developed as small irregularly arranged dark spots or absent, M. pavo, new species, is istinguished by the presence of only 4-6 dorsal-fin spines, only 6-8 rostral tooth plates and details of the colour pattern. In addition, M. lineatomaculatus, new species, is described from India and Nepal and it is distinguished by rostral tooth plates 15-17, dorsal fin spines 19-22, and large black blotches along dorsal fin. The systematic position of M. caudiocellatus is reviewed and the species is retransferred to Mastacembelus.

泰國南部產南鰍屬之一新種 - Schistura udomritthiruji

文獻來源: Bohlen J, Slechtova V. 2010. Schistura udomritthiruji, a new loach from southern Thailand (Cypriniformes: Nemacheilidae). Ichthyological Exploration of Freshwaters 20(4): 319-324.

Abstract
Schistura udomritthiruji, new species, is described from streams draining to the Andaman Sea in southern Thailand between Takua Pa and Ranong. It is distinguished from congeners by the following characters: dark bars on the body much thinner in the anterior half of the body than in the posterior half; 9+8 branched rays in the caudal fin; males with suborbital flap; lateral line ends above base of anal fin; caudal fin hyaline and dark bars on posterior half of body more than twice as wide as interspaces.

巴西中部辛古河流域產溪鱂科新種 - Rivulus megaroni

文獻來源: Costa WJEM. 2010. Rivulus megaroni, a new killifish from the Xingu River drainage, southern Brazilian Amazon (Cyprinodontiformes: Rivulidae). Ichthological Exploration of Freshwaters 20(4): 365-370.

Abstract
Rivulus megaroni, new species, is described from the Xingu River drainage, southern Amazonas River basin, central Brazil. It is similar to other species of Melanorivulus endemic to the southern Amazonian tributaries of central Brazil by having a unique color pattern of flank in males, consisting of red marks arranged in a chevronlike pattern, in which the chevron vertex is placed on the ventral portion of the flank. The new species is distinguished from all other species sharing that color pattern by a combination of 34-36 scales in the longitudinal series, seven well-developed pelvic-fin rays, chevron marks of flank arranged as oblique bars, absence of red pigmentation on the tip of the lower jaw, a horizontal series of white spots on the dorsal portion of the caudal fin in females, and caudal fin pink in males.

寮國中部的新種潘鰍 - Pangio longimanus

文獻來源: Britz R, Kottelat M. 2010. Pangio longimanus, a miniature species of eel-loach from Central Laos (Teleostei: Cypriniformes: Cobitidae). Ichthyological Exploration of Freshwaters 20(4): 371-376.

Abstract
Pangio longimanus, a new species of eel-loach is described from Laos. It is distinguished from other congeners by the extremely elongated pectoral fins in male and its miniature size (adult size less than 23 mm SL).

Creagrutus yanatili - 一種來自秘魯東南部Urubamba支流的新種脂鯉

文獻來源: Harold AS, Salcedo NJ. 2010. Creagrutus yanatili, a new species from the Río Urubamba drainage, southeastern Perú (Teleostei: Characidae). Ichthological Exploration of Freshwaters 20(4): 377-373.

Abstract
Creagrutus yanatili, new species, is described from the Río Urubamba drainage, southeastern Perú. It is most similar to C. peruanus, with which it occurs at one of the two known collecting localities, with respect to overall body form and meristic characters. Creagrutus yanatili differs from other Creagrutus species in the region and nearly all other Creagrutus species in the presence of very well developed papillae extending posterior of the head over most of the predorsal surface, and from all other described Creagrutus species in the presence of very dark, nearly black, pigmentation covering much of the body and fins, and the presence of both straight, needle-like and hook-like contact organs on the shafts of the anal-fin rays.

蘇門達臘虎當寵物?印尼擬准

蘇門達臘虎當寵物?印尼擬准
2010-01-25 中國時報 梁東屏/曼谷廿四日電

圖為位於印度北蘇門答臘棉蘭的一所動物園,歡喜迎接新成員─小小蘇門答臘虎,小虎靠在媽媽爪邊頻打呵欠,模樣十分可愛。(陳盈竹 編譯/美聯社)

為了保護日益稀少的蘇門答臘虎,印尼現在正在考慮允許私人將蘇門答臘虎當作寵物飼養。該國林業部總監達羅里表示:「我們不是出租或出售老虎,我們只是允許人們照料牠們」。

這項計畫如果通過,最快今年內就實施。按照計畫,任何印尼公民只要付出十億印尼盾(新台幣三百一十萬元),作為對保育工作的保證,就可以領養一對蘇門答臘虎。

野生的蘇門答臘虎在一九七○年代大約還有一千隻,不過現在僅剩下約兩百隻。蘇門答臘虎經常因為人們對其皮毛、虎骨、虎鞭乃至虎肉的消費需求而遭到非法獵殺,已被列為嚴重瀕臨絕種類動物。

雅加達當局這項計畫已經遭到保育人士抨擊,他們指出,印尼當局的正確作法應該是保護蘇門答臘虎的自然棲息地不受破壞。在印尼,蘇門答臘虎棲息森林,幾乎已被非法盜林業者摧毀殆盡。

印尼林業局官員表示,他們從峇里島的八哥鳥復育工作學到寶貴教訓。峇里島八哥鳥一度面臨滅絕,但是後來開放給民間飼養、照顧之後,繁殖得更快,目前已經沒有滅絕之虞。

林業局官員也指出,想要當蘇門答臘虎的飼主,至少要有四千九百平方公尺的土地,並接受政府對飼養的監督,虐待老虎的飼養者將被提控,罪名成立將被判罰款及監禁,且老虎的所有權還是歸於政府。達羅里指出:「我們可以把老虎的新家看作是迷你動物園」。

林業局官員武揚托也反駁這項計畫會導致蘇門答臘虎進一步被獵捕的說法。他指出人們在野外設陷阱捕捉蘇門答臘虎可能性很低,因為風險很高,而且野外捕來的老虎很難圈養,印尼目前只有約三十隻蘇門答臘虎在圈養環境出生。

另請見: 雅加達郵報(Jakarta Post)的報導

中非產石蛙科石蛙屬之分類檢討及三個新種之描述

[photo provided by Michael Barej, Zoologisches Forschungsmuseum Alexander Koenig & Andreas Schmitz (Museum d'histoire naturelle, Geneva]
文獻來源: Barej MF, Rodel M-O, Gonwouo LN, Pauwels OSG, Bohme W, Schmitz A. 2010. Review of the genus Petropedetes Reichenow, 1874 in Central Africa with the description of three new species (Amphibia: Anura: Petropedetidae). Zootaxa 2340: 1-49.

Abstract
We review and summarize the present knowledge on Central African Petropedetes, discuss their taxonomy and describe three new species. We synonymise one name: P. newtonii is a junior synonym of P. johnstoni. Frogs from the African mainland, namely Cameroon and eastern Nigeria, assigned to “P. newtonii” in more recent literature, were misidentified. They are herein described anew as Petropedetes vulpiae sp. nov. Two further new taxa are morphologically similar to other described species. Petropedetes euskircheni sp. nov. is morphologically close to P. parkeri but differs foremost in the smaller size of the femoral glands in adult males. P. juliawurstnerae sp. nov. is morphologically similar to P. perreti and P. cameronensis. It can be distinguished from P. perreti by its less developed webbing and from P. cameronensis by the size of its tympanum and the occurrence of a tympanic papilla in males. A key to adult males of the currently known Central African Petropedetes species is given and an outlook on potential further new taxa is provided.

巴西投肯廷河地區產油鯰之一新種 - Pimelodus luciae

文獻來源: Rocha MS, Ribeiro FRV. 2010. A new species of Pimelodus LaCépède, 1803 (Siluriformes: Pimelodidae) from rio Itacaiunas, rio Tocantins basin, Brazil. Zootaxa 2343: 57-65.

Abstract
Pimelodus luciae is described from rio Itacaiunas, rio Tocantins basin. The new species exhibits a unique spotted pigmentation pattern for Pimelodidae. Pimelodus luciae differs further from remaining valid Pimelodus species by the following combination of characters: the relatively short distance between the posterior nostril and the anterior orbital border; dorsal surface of the supraoccipital process rounded; horizontal orbital diameter greater than interorbital distance; and distal portion of dorsal fin hyaline. Pimelodus luciae is known only from the type-locality.

2010年1月25日 星期一

2010-01-25新進動物與魚隻

Heosemys depressa 緬甸山龜 x 1
Pseudohemiodon apithanos 陰陽直升機 (=變色龍直升機) x 1
Loricaria parnahybae 黑白直升機 (=變色龍直升機) (台產) x 5
Merodoras nheco 花木紋盔甲貓 x 3
Entomocorus radiosus 雙黑尾小虎鯨 x 3
Auchenipterichthys coracoideus 大口藍鯨 x 3
Tetranematicthys wallacei 枯葉虎鯨 x 2
Liosomadoras oncinus 豹紋石虎 x 2
Liosomadoras morrowi 黑色美洲虎 x 1
Pareutropius buffei 非洲玻璃貓 x 9
Bunocephalus sp. 斑鳩貓 x 8
Dianema urostriatum 飛鳳戰車鼠 x 4
Corydoras sp. cf. acrensis
阿克力鼠(?) x 1
Corydoras sp. C141 白棘豹鼠 x 3
Corydoras sp. C018 白棘豹鼠 x 2
Corydoras sp. (C038 x C042) x C092 希爾亂倫鼠 x 7#
Corydoras sp. C092 長鼻帝王一線鼠 (長吻納奇鼠) x 6#
Corydoras sp. handicapped 希爾殘障鼠 x 若干#
Corydoras sp. "Yunna" 投肯廷斯帝王鼠短吻型 x 1
Corydoras sodalis 大花網鼠 x 1
Corydoras rectiulatus 網鼠 x 1
Corydoras robineae 飛鳳鼠 1
Brochis splendens 青銅鼠 x 1
Mastacembelus circumcinctus 環帶吻棘鰍 x 2
Neolebias powelli 小丑短筆燈 x 13*
Hemigrammus sp. 布蘭卡燈 x 2
Cheirodon kriegi 月光燈 x 5
Hyphessobrycon sp. 三色旗(?) x 6
Characidae 其他有的沒的燈 x 若干 (啥居然有白雲山?)

[今日主題是畢業學生寵物回收中心]

魚隻來源: 大大A*, 大大B, 大大C#

2010年1月24日 星期日

【國寶山椒魚】日本傳說中的活化石-山椒魚能成為放射科技師和女高中生的愛神邱比特?!

居然還有這種東西啊.....日本的蒲島雜誌根據這個電影的情節鋪陳了一個看似史實的東西, 但其實是東拼西湊來的, 連提塔利克魚都被挖出來增加故事的真實性, 但請不要當真. 電影之官方網頁在此, 還有你水管上面的預告片

二宮家是負責看管著國寶大山椒魚-金太郎,但是世人對於二宮家所保存的山椒魚真偽都心存懷疑,自稱是21世紀天才放射科大師的飛鳥芳一接受了他人的委託調查真假與否。

但是某天二宮四郎被趕出家門並對最小的女兒做了一番告誡。 國寶級的山椒魚為整個家庭帶來什麼轉變?受委託的放射科大師竟然就此遇上了真愛?

在日本以短篇電影而受到注目的新進導演富永昌敬第一次的大膽嘗試。

小田切讓用緊張神經質的方式給了放射科技師生命力,再加上香椎由宇、KIKI每個各具特色的演員加入,年輕勢力讓整部電影個呈現另起了一股新風貌。

雄性短鰭花鱂把妹時若被其它雄性偷看會隱藏其對妹的味口以免妹被搶走

[superlink: Fishbase, photo credit: JM Artigas Azas]

文獻來源: Ziege M, Mahlow K, Hennige-Schulz C, Kronmarck C, Tiedemann R, Streit B, Plath M. 2009.
Audience effects in the Atlantic molly (Poecilia mexicana)–prudent male mate choice in response to perceived sperm competition risk? Frontiers in Zoology 6:17 doi:10.1186/1742-9994-6-17


Background
Multidirectional interactions in social networks can have a profound effect on mate choice behavior; e.g., Poecilia mexicana males show weaker expression of mating preferences when being observed by a rival. This may be an adaptation to reduce sperm competition risk, which arises because commonly preferred female phenotypes will receive attention also from surrounding males, and/or because other males can copy the focal male's mate choice. Do P. mexicana males indeed respond to perceived sperm competition risk? We gave males a choice between two females and repeated the tests under one of the following conditions: (1) an empty transparent cylinder was presented (control); (2) another ("audience") male inside the cylinder observed the focal male throughout the 2nd part, or (3) the audience male was presented only before the tests, but could not eavesdrop during the actual choice tests (non-specific sperm competition risk treatments); (4) the focal male could see a rival male interact sexually with the previously preferred, or (5) with the non-preferred female before the 2nd part of the tests (specific sperm competition risk treatments).

Results
The strength of individual male preferences declined slightly also during the control treatment (1). However, this decrease was more than two-fold stronger in audience treatment (2), i.e., with non-specific sperm competition risk including the possibility for visual eavesdropping by the audience male. No audience effect was found in treatments (3) and (5), but a weak effect was also observed when the focal male had seen the previously preferred female sexually interact with a rival male (treatment 4; specific sperm competition risk).

Conclusion
When comparing the two 'non-specific sperm competition risk' treatments, a very strong effect was found only when the audience male could actually observe the focal male during mate choice [treatment (2)]. This suggests that focal males indeed attempt to conceal their mating preferences so as to prevent surrounding males from copying their mate choice. When there is no potential for eavesdropping [treatment (3)], non-specific specific sperm competition risk seems to play a minor or no role. Our results also show that P. mexicana males tend to share their mating effort more equally among females when the resource value of their previously preferred mate decreases after mating with a rival male (perceived specific sperm competition risk), but this effect is comparatively weak.

台灣的保育科學界, 媒體, 和NGO所稱的魚虎倒底是什麼東西啊?

近幾年來魚虎這個名字被叫得響亮, 而且多數的報導都一再地複製一種印象, "好可怕", 居然把"庫中的魚都吃到剩一半". 我承認那的確很可怕, 然而那種對外來種態度持雙重標準的態度讓我非常不能認同. 請問水庫中的那些魚不是外來種嗎? 水庫中那些外來鯉科魚難道在漢人移民進入台灣島後沒有破壞台灣真正原生的淡水環境? 那些從中國引進的外來種鯉科魚類那一個不是政府力量介入引進的? 釣客抱怨他們想釣的魚被吃了, 難道只是因為台灣人還不太會料理魚虎? 所以乾脆就讓這樣的聲音一直擴大到掩蓋真相與科學? 姑且不去談保育科學界漠視這種雙重標準, NGO隨著一些大老似是而非的言論起舞, 以及媒體亂報的現象, 我們先討論一個問題. 魚虎倒底是什麼東西啊?

google一下"魚虎"兩字, 大家一定會看到一堆奇奇怪怪的結果. 而且最有趣的是, 多數的pdf, ppt, doc檔, 居然都還是學生作業或是老師的教材, 然後也都是抄來抄去的. 就算是網址有gov.tw的, 也不能輕信, 為什麼? 阿那些網頁就助理或學生弄一弄貼上去啊, 不是嗎? 根據google的結果, 出現了以下各種神奇的說法. 只用"魚虎"兩字在繁體中文下查詢, 最先跑出來的有以下幾個:
  • 朱政騏的blog (就是那個吃牛糞的台大學生): 扯一堆資本主義碗糕的, 他根本不知道外來物種進入台灣自然環境且拓殖的可能性有多少種吧? 隨便一個資本主義看起來拉高了論述層級一副人文關懷上身, 但真的不知道在說什麼, 他可以用blog來發表他的大論, 他可以在無名下使用blogger的底圖, 難道不是資本主義造就的環境嗎?
  • 嘉義巨報有關在白河水庫釣魚虎的經過: 阿就是魚大人勇
  • 特生中心的自然保育季刊裏的一篇文章: 這篇文章指出魚虎是Channa micropeltes, 而泰國鱧(或線鱧)指的是Channa striata (附註: 這篇文章又再次複製一個奇怪的觀點, 認為台灣的水域中有Pygocentrus nattereri這種鯧脂鯉!! 這倒底一開始是那個專家鑑定的啊?)
  • 曾文水庫的魚虎特餐: 看起來不怎麼可口, 做成壽司一整個廉價了
  • 台灣全記錄的blog: 魚虎全民公敵
  • 魚虎批發部落格: 說魚虎有很多DHA, 叫大家來吃. 這是很有創意, 但是我覺得要弄一些料理給大家看看, 我當然也知道Channa很好吃, 但是沒有陳美鳳, 白冰冰, 曾國城, 阿基師去煮或是高檔飯店採購是沒有用的.
  • 豬油時報: 說曾文水庫釣不到原生魚. 怪事了, 水庫裏的魚幾乎都是外來種啊, 有什麼原生魚啊?
  • 一篇發表在特有生物研究的論文: 居然把魚虎當成Channa maculata, 而審查者也沒發現?
所以說了半天, 魚虎是啥呢? 其實所謂的魚虎一直都是Channa micropeltes. 這條鱧魚是一種從小到大有相當大的體型與體色變化的魚. 然後, 台灣有泰國鱧嗎? 台灣所說的泰國鱧是什麼? 不管是特生中心或是其它的單位網頁或林春吉的書都說台灣有Channa striata, 然而Courtenay et al. (2004)的文章指出striata這個種可能並沒有被引入台灣, 而在台灣有引入並建立族群的則是Channa maculata, 也就是斑鱧(最大33cm). 如果真正的striata根本沒有被引入台灣並在野外建立族群, 那麼一堆外來種資訊庫上所說的"最大可達90cm", 不就是根據錯誤的鑑定結果所得到的錯誤引述嗎? 林春吉的書上提到"線鱧的危害比斑鱧更嚴重", 會不會, 其實他想的是魚虎(=紅線鱧), 但是把學名當成striata? 他還說體長"20-90cm"? 我從不知道有任何一種鱧科魚類的"成體體長"有20-90cm的變化! 他在書末又指出台灣有striata是因為觀賞魚貿易所引起的, 但是為什麼我從沒見過striata的販賣, 甚至沒見過東南亞出口商報價單中有這條魚呢? 是我孤陋寡聞嗎? 他在書中的照片真的是striata嗎? 依他的說明, striata的背鰭有黑點. 但, 真正的striata的背鰭就是沒有大黑點.

我想這些問題都應該要被釐清, 而不能放任網路無限地把錯誤的資訊傳遞下去.

2010年1月23日 星期六

坦干伊喀湖只有6種藍首魚(蝴蝶)卻展現120種色彩型乃是肇因於雌魚口孵與各族群取食策略不同所形塑的頭型改變

[superlink: wikipedia, photo credit: Thomas Ernst]

文獻來源: Herler J, Kerschbaumer M, Mitteroecker P, Postl L, Sturmbauer C. 2010.
Sexual dimorphism and population divergence in the Lake Tanganyika cichlid fish genus Tropheus. Frontiers in Zoology 7: 4 doi: 10.1186/1742-9994-7-4


Background
With about 120 colour morphs currently assigned to six nominal species, the genus Tropheus is an ideal model to study evolutionary divergence of populations in allopatry. The morphology of Tropheus has been described as relatively static, but reproductive constraints are sexually dimorphic due to mouthbrooding in females. We analysed phenotypic variation in six populations of T. moorii and one population of T. polli using geometric morphometrics to assess morphological differences among sexes in relation to the differentiation of populations and species.

Results
The mean shapes differed significantly between sexes, populations, and species even though within-sex variation exceeded the divergence among populations. The first principal component of Procrustes shape coordinates revealed differences between populations and species in mouth position and ventral head shape. The second principal component reflected sex-specific shape differences, mainly comprising a relatively larger female viscerocranium and, in particular, a larger buccal area. While shape variation between populations and between sexes was primarily located in the cranial region, within-sex variation was relatively uniform across all landmarks.

Conclusions
Deviations of the between-population and between-sex pattern of shape variation from that within sex indicate that the differences in head shape likely result from both adaptations to female mouthbrooding and population-specific foraging strategies.

2010年1月20日 星期三

印度東北部梅加拉亞邦掌突蟾屬之一新種 - Leptolalax khasiorum

文獻來源: Das I, Tron RKL, Rangad D, Hooroo PNK. 2010. A new species of Leptolalax (Anura: Megophryidae) from the sacred groves of Mawphlang, Meghalaya, north-eastern India. Zootaxa 2339: 44-56.

Abstract
A new species of megophryid frog of the genus Leptolalax is described from the sacred groves of Mawphlang, East Khasi Hills, north-eastern India. L. khasiorum new species, is compared with congeners from India and other parts of south-east Asia. The new species is diagnosable in showing the following combination of characters: SVL 24.5–27.3 (mean 25.63 ± 0.61 SE) mm in a sample of four adult males; 31.2–33.4 (mean 32.50 ± 0.67 SE) mm in a sample of three females; dorsum with fine scattered tubercles; eyelids with tubercles; tympanum and supratympanic fold distinct; macroglands, including preaxillary, pectorals and ventrolateral glands present; Finger I > II; toe tips not dilated, bearing dermal fringes; dorsum with dark blotches; flanks with large dark blotches; dark tympanic mask present; venter lacking dark blotches; labial bars present and limbs with dark cross-bars.

2010年1月17日 星期日

2010-01-16新進動物

[Siren lacertina Photo by LC Shih]
Pseudotriton ruber schencki 豔紅蠑螈X4
Triturus marmoratus 斑點蠑螈 x 1
Siren lacertina 大鰻螈 x 5
Pseudobranchus axanthus axanthus 窄帶小型鰻螈 x 15

[再聯絡]


西藏尼木縣(涅莫)產裸趾虎新種 - 趙氏裸趾虎 Cyrtodactylus zhaoermii

文獻來源: Shih L, Zhao H. 2010. A new species of Cyrtodactylus (Reptilia: Squamata: Geckkonidae) from Xizang Autonomous Region, China. Zootaxa 2336: 51-60.

Abstract
A new species of Cyrtodactylus described from Nyemo County, Xizang Autonomous Region, China is here referred to a new species, Cyrtodactylus zhaoermii sp. nov. It is distinguished from all other Cyrtodactylus by the following characters: dorsal surface of the body with fine granules intermixed with larger sub-conical tubercles arranged into 20 more or less regular rows; proximal subdigital lamellae transversely expanded; 19–20 subdigital lamellae on toe IV; 30–32 midbody ventral scales; most scales in femoral region small, granular, series of 12–14 enlarged femoral scales lacking pores; a series of precloacal pores (4) present in male; tail with distinct segments, large, posteriorly directed tubercles in whorls, numbering nine to ten per caudal annulus, three on each side and three to four on the dorsum, situated at the posterior edge of each annulus; subcaudals not transversely expanded. The new species is the fourth Cyrtodactylus known from Xizang Autonomous Region.

2010年1月14日 星期四

2010-01-14新進魚隻

綠皮短筆燈紅金短筆燈
三線短筆燈衣索匹亞短筆燈
[Nannaethiops unitaeniatus 金線短筆燈 Photo by Nathan Chiang]
非洲雙線短筆燈
[Neolebias philippei 粉紅精靈短筆燈 Photo by Nathan Chiang]
[Photo by Pirate Tzeng]
[Procatopus similis "Njanje" Photo by Nathan Chiang]
Denticetopsis praecox 巧克力鮫鯨 x 11*
Corydoras sp. C103 虎斑一間鼠 x 8# (日名為: ハイブリッドスポッ
トザンガマ, 或バージニアエ“スポット”)
Corydoras sp. NALC 帝王黑影鼠 x 2#
Corydoras sp. cf. urucu 巴西煙圈鼠 x 5
Mastacembelus tanganicae 大理石鰻 (坦干依喀棘鰍) x 2*
Polypterus delhezi 斑節恐龍 x 3
Barbus hulstaerti 夢幻小丑燈 x 20
Procatopus similis "Njanje" 黃背紅翅女王鱂 x 5對
Astyanax fasciatus mexicanus or jordani (?) 盲魚 x 10*
Alestopetersius sp. cf. nigropterus 火燄剛果 x 10
Ladigesia roloffi 畢卡索燈 x 10
Neolebias philippei 粉紅精靈短筆燈 x 20
Caridina longirostris or gracilisrostris (?) 紅鼻槍蝦 x 10*

有幾個議題 (但還沒時間好好思考): (1) 那些短筆燈(Neolebias)倒底怎麼鑑定, 是憑著那些線條粗細斑紋有無嗎? 或是還有比較可靠正確的鑑識特徵? (2) 那個虎斑一間鼠是啥? (3) 不同產地的女王鱂倒底是不同種? 不同的色型? 或只是主觀的評價? [待續]

魚隻來源: 台族水族(*), 石頭水族 & APT, 水世界水族(#)

2010年1月13日 星期三

這些白目高中生是一定要罰的啊

高中生挑釁 黑猩猩拿石砸玻璃/園方要究責 高中生恐罰13萬
台視 (2010-01-13 13:39)

參觀動物園要遵守規定,以免傷害動物又吃上罰單,就有一群高中生,前往高雄市壽山動物園參觀,沒想到他們挑釁黑猩猩,學黑猩猩走路與吼叫,還有學生作勢打黑猩猩,黑猩猩一怒下,拿石頭砸破強化玻璃宣示不滿,現在壽山動物園要追究這群高中生賠償責任和依動保法法開罰. 這是黑猩猩莉忠遭到參觀民眾挑釁,相當火大的樣子,最後衝下來一頭撞上強化玻璃,碰得一聲,不過民眾卻還是一副看好戲 . 這隻黑猩猩莉忠,在壽山動物園裡頭,是相當有名的火爆浪子,15歲的牠屬於青壯年,脾氣不好,尤其上個禮拜,遭到一群來參觀的高中生挑釁,不但在牠面前學吼叫與走路,還有人作勢要打牠,氣得莉忠拿石頭砸,力量之大就連強化玻璃都打破了,可見牠的怒火有多旺. 現在壽山動物園決定追究賠償責任,要這群高中生負擔強化玻璃8萬塊維修費,並依動物保護法開罰5萬塊的罰鍰,提醒民眾要愛護動物.

從中時那篇腦殘文衍生出來的東森白癡報導 - 台美大戰!大頭鰱入侵五大湖 歐巴馬宣戰

在水中測到DNA? 這是啥鬼啊? 然後網路上就開始有一堆鄉民開始拿這個當梗, 把美國牛肉和有的沒的拿來湊和亂罵自爽一通當起義和團了

台美大戰!大頭鰱入侵五大湖 歐巴馬宣戰
(2010/01/11 21:28)

國際中心/綜合報導

做砂鍋魚頭的大頭鰱,現在讓美國人聞之色變。美國在1970年代從台灣引進大頭鰱,要清除水中的水藻,沒想到大頭鰱游進密西西比河流域,現在更朝五大湖挺進,嚇得好幾個州政府連署,要求聯邦政府派出美軍全力阻擋入侵。

大頭鰱在1972年被阿肯色州養殖業者引進,用來清除孳生的水藻,當時成效良好,不過少數大頭鰱游進密西西比河,生命力旺盛的大頭鰱,目前正逐步朝五大湖步步逼近,美國總統歐巴馬去年在伊利諾州渡假時,也曾經宣稱要對付大頭鰱這個外來入侵者。

當地好幾個州的州政府雖然已經又通電又下毒,但去年還是在密西根湖測到大頭鰱的DNA,讓他們大驚失色,事實上大頭鰱適應力強,從台灣過鹹水到美國後,長得又肥又大隻。去年還有一名釣客,釣到了一隻巨無霸大頭鰱,身長142公分重達42公斤,而且這些大頭鰱還會在河面上胡亂飛來飛去,漁夫和釣客安全受到極大威脅。

而美國民眾苦中作樂,還因為大頭鰱發展出水上射魚,這個號稱20年來最刺激的運動。美國好幾個州政府認為大頭鰱可能妨礙船隻航行,並且影響釣客安全,竟然連署要求最高法院核准派遣美軍工兵團,封鎖五大湖區和密西西比河水域唯一的運河閘口,但聯邦檢查總長卡根卻批評這種手段太過戲劇性,根本沒必要。

美國人對大頭鰱不感興趣,通常拿去動物園餵企鵝吃,如果美國人像台灣一樣愛吃大頭鰱所作的砂鍋魚頭,目前這些問題或許都可以迎刃而解吧!(新聞來源:東森新聞記者許瑜菁)