Nothobranchius kadleci, a new African annual killifish species, is described from the drainages of the Save, Gorongose, Pungwe and Zangue Rivers in the Sofala Province of central Mozambique. Nothobranchius kadleci is similar to Nothobranchius furzeri from which it is distinguished by colouration (red pelvic fins, red lips, more extensive red colouration on body) and morphology (larger distance between pectoral and pelvic fins, shorter anal and dorsal fins, and shorter base of the anal fin). The currently known distribution of these two species is allopatric, with the N. kadleci range north of the N. furzeri range. Nothobranchius kadleci occurs sympatrically with Nothobranchius orthonotus and Nothobranchius rachovii, from which it can clearly be distinguished by different colour patterns of the fins and body, head shape and morphometric characteristics. A total of 12 populations were recorded between the northern bank of the Save River and southern bank of the Zambezi during collection trips in February 2008 and February 2009.