2009年5月28日 星期四

2009-05-29新進魚隻

Gobiopterus chuno 玻璃蝦虎 x 4
Devaios annandalei 緬甸紅翅鑽紋斑馬 x 4
Adontosternarchus sp. cf. balaenops 大理石迷彩飛刀 (=大理石飛刀, 麻花飛刀)
Sternarchorhynchus sp. cf. roseni 象鼻飛刀1 (台族) x 2
Sternarchorhynchus sp. cf. mormyrus 象鼻飛刀2 (台族) x 4
Steatogenys duidae 黃金大理石飛刀 x 3
Gymnorhamphichthys hypostomus 尖嘴帶紋飛刀 x 5

最近討論象鼻飛刀鑑定問題的時候只看了Campos-da-Paz(2000)的文章, 後來才發現Carlos D de Santana在2006年的Ichthyological Exploration of Freshwaters又發表了三個新種, 分別是Sternarchorhynchos gnomus, S. severiiS. caboclo (後兩者為共棲物種). 這三個種與我們最近買到的魚有沒有關係有待進一步的檢查. 不過根據de Santana的文章顯示在巴西境內至少還有4種未被描述的象鼻飛刀. 而由所提供的棲地照片顯示象鼻飛刀的棲地並非沼澤或懸浮物很多的水域, 而是大石磷峋的急流. 這暗示我們想要長期飼養這類的魚應該提供清澈流動的環境.

動物與魚隻來源: 台族水族, 石頭水族 & APT

2009年5月26日 星期二

中國廣西柳江水系馴樂石灰岩地下水中產高原鰍之一新種

文獻來源: Zheng JP, Du LN, Chen XY, Yang JX. 2009. A new species of genus Triplophysa (Nemacheilinae: Balitoridae), Triplophysa longipectoralis sp. nov. from Guangxi, China. Envrionmental Biology of Fishes [摘要下載]

Abstract
A new species, Triplophysa longipectoralis, is described from Liujiang River, Guangxi, China. The new species is distinguished from other species of Triplophysa by the following combination of characters: pectoral fin highly developed, reaching beyond pelvic-fin origin; eyes present and vestigial; body covered with scales; dorsal and lateral sides of head and body mottled with blotches; dorsal fin emarginate; caudal fin forked; anus close to anal-fin origin. A key to all valid species of Triplophysa in Xijiang River water system is provided.

澳洲產巨蜥身體越短跑得愈快

文獻來源: Clemente CJ, Thompson GG, Withers PC. 2009. Evolutionary relationships of sprint speed in Australian varanid lizards. Journal of Zoology [摘要下載]

Abstract
Ecomorphological studies often seek to link morphology and performance to relevant ecological characteristics. Varanid lizards are unique in that species can vary in body size by almost four orders of magnitude within a single genus, and a question of considerable interest is whether similar ecomorphological relationships exist when constraints on body size are reduced. We studied sprint speed in relation to size, shape and ecology for 18 species of varanid lizards. Maximal speed scaled positively with mass0.166 using least squares regression, and mass0.21 using reduced major-axis regression. However, a curvilinear trend better described this relationship, suggesting an optimal mass of 2.83 kg with respect to speed. Including data for the komodo dragon Varanus komodoensis moves the optimum mass to 2.23 kg. We use this relationship to predict the sprint speed of the Komodo's giant extinct relative Varanus (Megalania) prisca to be 2.6–3 m s−1 similar to that of extant freshwater crocodiles Crocodylus johnstoni. When differences in speed were compared to ecological characteristics, species from open habitats were significantly faster than species from semi-open or closed habitat types, and remained so after correction for size and phylogeny. Thus, despite large variation in body size, varanids appear to share similar associations between performance and ecology as seen in other lizard groups. Varanids did, however, differ in morphological relationships with sprint speed. Differences in relative speed were not related to relative hindlimb length, as is commonly reported for other lizard groups. Instead, size-free forefoot length was negatively related to speed as was the size-free thorax–abdomen length. While shorter forefeet were thought to be an adaptation to burrowing, and thus open habitats, rather than speed per se, the reduction in the thorax–abdomen length may have significant advantages to increasing speed. Biomechanical models predicting this advantage are discussed in relation to a trade-off between speed and manoeuvrability.

圖片連結: treknature.com (photo credit: Chris Chafer)

有鱗目的性別決定是由溫控演化為性染色體調控

文獻來源: Pokorná M., Kratochvíl L. 2009. Phylogeny of sex-determining mechanisms in squamate reptiles: are sex chromosomes an evolutionary trap? Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society 156(1): 168-183. [摘要下載]

Abstract

Squamate reptiles possess two general modes of sex determination: (1) genotypic sex determination (GSD), where the sex of an individual is determined by sex chromosomes, i.e. by sex-specific differences in genotype; and (2) temperature-dependent sex determination (TSD), where sex chromosomes are absent and sex is determined by nongenetic factors. After gathering information about sex-determining mechanisms for more than 400 species, we employed comparative phylogenetic analyses to reconstruct the evolution of sex determination in Squamata. Our results suggest relative uniformity in sex-determining mechanisms in the majority of the squamate lineages. Well-documented variability is found only in dragon lizards (Agamidae) and geckos (Gekkota). Polarity of the sex-determining mechanisms in outgroups identified TSD as the ancestral mode for Squamata. After extensive review of the literature, we concluded that to date there is no known well-documented transition from GSD to TSD in reptiles, although transitions in the opposite direction are plentiful and well corroborated by cytogenetic evidence. We postulate that the evolution of sex-determining mechanisms in Squamata was probably restricted to the transitions from ancestral TSD to GSD. In other words, transitions were from the absence of sex chromosomes to the emergence of sex chromosomes, which have never disappeared and constitute an evolutionary trap. This evolutionary trap hypothesis could change the understanding of phylogenetic conservatism of sex-determining systems in many large clades such as butterflies, snakes, birds, and mammals.

圖片連結: natural-environment.com (photo credit: Ferry van Stralen)

大白天躲在暗處眼力會好很多: 不同光環境下大鱗球趾虎視覺偵測能力的差異

文獻來源: Nava SS, Conway MA, Martins EP. 2009. Divergence of visual motion detection in diurnal geckos that inhabit bright and dark habitats. Functional Ecology [摘要下載]

Abstract
  1. Recent studies of the sensory drive hypothesis suggest that communicative signals evolve readily whereas change in sensory perception is more constrained by the demands of the physical environment.
  2. Here, we find that diurnal Sphaerodactylus macrolepis geckos collected from dark, forested habitats were best able to detect motion in very dim light (<>
  3. Motion detection by geckos from both habitat types declined as light intensity increased above 300 lux. These differences were observed after the lizards had been living in a common laboratory environment for 1 full year and are hence unlikely to be due to acclimation effects.
  4. Light conditions for optimal visual performance match the light conditions of the natural habitats in which the lizards are found. Our results support the suggestion that visual performance may evolve quickly and that the sensory drive process may be best described as repeated co-evolution between signals and receiver sensory systems.
  5. Thus, for animals that inhabit wide ranges of visual habitats, the sensory drive process may potentially act differently on separate visual response properties, resulting in diverse levels of variation and divergence in visual performance and communication systems.
圖片連結: kingsnake.com (photo credit: Dr. Richard C. West)

豹貓守宮的生殖策略: 先講究不傷身體, 後生小孩, 然後再長肥

Kubička L, Kratochvíl L. 2009. First grow, then breed and finally get fat: hierarchical allocation to life-history traits in a lizard with invariant clutch size. Functional Ecology 23(3): 595-601. [摘要下載]

Asbtract

Organisms frequently encounter environments with different productivity. Fitness of an individual then depends on decisions made concerning energy allocation to particular life-history traits in a given environment. In reptiles and other ectotherms, individuals on a poor diet commonly reach smaller size and invest less in reproduction, but they often produce larger eggs than well-fed individuals. 2. Several lineages of reptiles including geckos have evolved an invariant clutch size as a derived mode of reproduction. Gecko females produce maximally two large eggs per clutch, but clutches are unusually frequent. Therefore, geckos serve as an interesting group for studying the generality of nutrition-dependent plasticity in life-history. 3. In a laboratory experiment, we manipulated diet in adult females of the Madagascar ground gecko Paroedura picta. Both food-limited and well-fed females followed the same growth trajectory in body and head length. In contrast, allocation to reproduction was highly nutrition-dependent. Although females in both treatment groups reproduced, food-limited females compromised both quantity and quality of their progeny: they laid clutches of smaller eggs in longer intervals. Fat storage was formed only in well-fed females. 4. We propose that the results are best explained by the consecutive hierarchical allocation of resources to growth, reproduction and storage, and discuss the consequences for investigation of life-history trade-offs.

圖片連結: reptilechannel.com (photo credit: Jose Bergada)

2009年5月25日 星期一

馬來西亞破獲高達1202隻雲斑巨蜥的盜捕案

Clouded and Dumeril’s Monitor Lizards seized in Malaysia [全文引述自TRAFFIC官方網頁]

Wildlife and National Parks department officers chased down and stopped a lorry carrying 1,202 clouded monitor lizards along a highway in the state of Pahang, Malaysia on Wednesday.

The officers from Pahang, joined by their counterparts from the department’s Wildlife Crime Unit in Kuala Lumpur, gave chase when a five-tonne lorry they flagged down near a rubber estate, refused to stop. The officers discovered the live lizards tied in bags and stacked at the back of the lorry. Initial investigations revealed the lorry driver and two assistants had come from the southern state of Johor to buy the lizards from indigenous people who caught them in areas along the east coast of Peninsula Malaysia.

The clouded monitor lizard which is totally protected under Malaysian law is in high demand for its meat.

'Live lizards tied in bags and stacked at the back of the lorry.'The department director Khairiah Mohd Shariff was quoted saying that the department believed this haul, worth an estimated RM60,000 (USD16,577), was destined for restaurants overseas. Based on information from this seizure, the team later raided the home of a man in an indigenous peoples’ settlement nearby and seized another 34 more Clouded Monitor Lizards and two Dumeril’s Monitor Lizards that he had hidden behind the house. News reports said the 55-year-old man was believed to have been catching the endangered lizards in the forest and selling to middlemen. All the lizards have since been released back into the wild.

Several major seizures over the last year have highlighted just how large the illegal trade in Clouded Monitor Lizards is. A number of these have taken place in Pahang where the authorities have recently stepped up efforts and made several significant seizures.

In January officers seized 2,330 live Clouded Monitor Lizards and arrested three men in the state. Last April, authorities found 200 wok-bound lizards during a random check in an oil palm estate in Pahang. A shipment of 600 of Clouded Monitor Lizards was also seized at the Kuala Lumpur International Airport last year. However, these seizures were dwarfed by the case in November 2008, in which authorities found over 7,000 live Clouded Monitor Lizards in two raids in Johor.

台灣仍是越南非法海龜貿易中的主要買主

文獻來源: Stiles D. 2009. An assessment of the marine turtle trade in Viet Nam (PDF, 500 KB)

Paper protection not enough for Viet Nam’s marine turtles

Illegal goods: stuffed marine turtles openly for sale in An Dong Market, Ho Chi Minh City, Viet Nam Click photo to enlarge © Dan Stiles / TRAFFIC Southeast Asia Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, 23 May 2009—Marine turtles are vanishing from Viet Nam’s waters and illegal trade is largely to blame says a new study by TRAFFIC, the wildlife trade monitoring network.

An assessment of the marine turtle trade in Viet Nam (PDF, 500 KB), launched to mark World Turtle Day found that large marine turtles are now virtually absent from Viet Nam’s waters except for Green Turtles around the Con Dao Islands National Park.

A government-owned souvenir shop found selling illegal turtle products was a potent symbol of how a national ban on turtle products enacted in 2002 has been undermined by a lack of enforcement.

Traders in all Viet Nam’s coastal localities reported that catches of local marine turtles, especially Hawksbill Turtles, were becoming rare, and even the few caught were smaller than in previous years.

“Without effective enforcement of the laws, the future for marine turtles in Vietnamese waters looks very bleak.” says Tom Osborn, Acting Director of TRAFFIC’s Greater Mekong Programme.

The 2002 TRAFFIC study found that trade in marine turtles had extended into a large-scale wholesale export market and a Ministry of Fisheries report estimated the combined take across the entire Vietnamese coastline at 4,000 marine turtles annually.

Shortly after these surveys, the Viet Nam Government prohibited the exploitation of marine turtles but the current TRAFFIC survey finds the trade has continued, though at a reduced rate.

Items made from bekko (Hawksbill Turtle shell) illegally on sale in north Viet Nam Click photo to enlarge © Dan Stiles / TRAFFIC Southeast Asia Government enforcement of illegal marine turtle catching, processing and trade has been uneven at best—evidenced by a great decrease in the number of outlets and marine turtle products on display in some areas and an increase in others, particularly in some newly developing tourist areas, for example, around Ha Long City.”

In Ha Tien and Ho Chi Minh City, traders cited Indonesia and Malaysia as their main sources of turtles and raw scutes (the large scales on the turtle’s carapace or shell).

All international trade in marine turtles is banned under CITES (the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora).

Already threatened by habitat degradation, accidental or opportunistic capture by fishermen and the direct take of nesting females and their eggs, whole turtles are also stuffed and, in the case of Hawksbill Turtles, their shells turned into jewellery, fans and handbags, known as bekko.

According to the report, a lack of product more than law enforcement explains the steady downturn in the number of outlets selling marine turtle products.

Green Turtle meat was rarer than in 2002, and its price had increased significantly compared with those recorded during a 2002 TRAFFIC survey. In a Ha Tien market, after allowing for inflation, its price had more than doubled by 2008, pushing it into the luxury meat category.

However, in some towns, the study found bekko workshops and stores, including a government-owned souvenir shop, selling hundreds of marine turtle products operating in plain view of authorities.

The study found that businessmen in some areas were aware that it was illegal to capture, process and sell marine turtle products but there had been no action taken to confiscate or destroy the illegal items on sale.

The study said that most indicators pointed towards a falling demand, but vendors continued to report good sales for most marine turtle products indicating that the trade still posed a serious threat.

The study recommends that authorities look into finding alternative sources of income for communities dependent on the sale of marine turtle products, expand existing awareness programmes and confiscate and destroy all marine turtle products that remain on sale.

就算把原生物種擠在一起也不叫生態保育啊

這個新聞在邏輯上出現了幾個問題, 首先是人對外來種的喜好是選擇性的. 那些淡水石斑都是為了要讓台灣人吃到飽所引入的, 血鸚鵡這個變種魚也替台灣賺了很多外匯, 但是當他們在這樣的環境中出現的時候, 卻又變成什麼"難打的生態戰爭". 其次, 這個環境本身就是人工的, 所以花蓮市公所從其它地方引入這堆物種, 若事前沒有做任何的物種組成, 密度, ecologica capacity等等評估, 那麼這充其量也不過就是一個以台灣原生魚種為招牌的高密度混養缸. 蓋斑鬥魚的天然分布是在台灣東部嗎? 羅漢魚和石在台灣東部也有嗎? 如果沒有, 花蓮市政府這樣的作為其實只是一種對生態保育迷迷糊糊的信仰下, 把增加個體數量與大雜匯誤以為"生態保育"的作為罷了. 東部最需要的是重建與保護原有的環境, 而不是為了績效隨便放流一堆根本原本不分布在那邊的物種, 如果政府單位自己都弄不清楚什麼是正確謹慎的保育作為, 又如何能夠責怪民眾把外來種倒進那條溪呢?

亂放生 生態溪慘遭破壞
【聯合報╱本報記者范振和】
2009.05.25 03:37 am

生態保育,不是隨意放生!花蓮市兩年前開放明義國小圖書館後方的生態溪,最近風雲變色,原本市公所希望打造成台灣原生魚種的生命溪河,卻被民眾搞成「放生溪」,外來魚種耀武揚威,令人徒呼負負。

這條生態溪於96年4月間啟用,當初是想在市區建立一處台灣原生魚種人工溪,市公所向水產培育所爭取羅漢魚、菊池氏細鯽、石鮒、蓋斑鬥魚等魚種4萬餘尾,將人工溪命名「日日有魚、生生不息」,希望原生魚種能如溪名生生不息。

生態溪啟用後,常有人前往欣賞群魚優游,晚上更是情侶約會談心的好所在。但原生魚種快樂的日子不長,少數市民缺乏公德心,隨意撈捕魚苗,變成另類的親子活動,也有人亂倒汙油,導致魚群大批死亡。

後來又有人肆意放生外來魚種,生態溪慘遭嚴重破壞,如今,溪中魚蹤大多是泰國鯉魚、吳郭魚、血鸚鵡、非洲慈鯛魚等,鳩占鵲巢,本土原生魚種幾近滅絕。

市公所工務課長饒瑞逸派專人3名,定期架設魚網或撒網捕抓外來魚,已捕獲淡水石斑、鱧魚、血鸚鵡等各類外來魚200多尾,甚至有巴西龜的蹤跡。儘管市公所再三呼籲,放生情況已少見,但除了加強捕魚次數,沒有其他更有效的防治措施。

對市公所而言,這是一場難打的生態戰爭,期盼學者專家能提供杜絕外來魚種的方法,解決困擾許久的老問題。大家也要有公德心,共同維持本土魚種生存空間,留給下一代美好的生態。

【2009/05/25 聯合報】

2009年5月24日 星期日

最近那些很難鑑定的象鼻飛刀

最近半年進口到台灣的南美產裸背電鰻目(Gymnotiformes)魚類有增多的趨勢, 這些弱電魚的行為都非常有趣, 但是在物種鑑定方面實在是令人頭痛. 這些發電魚的外部形態特徵都很簡單, 多數的鑑識特徵則是一般人難以觀察與理解的頭部骨骼構造(要嘛就是X光要不就是做做透明魚把骨頭染色), 近年來發現光背電鰻科的雄魚頭部形態具有很高的發育可塑性後, 想要憑外表的"氣質"來鑑定一條魚就更困難了. 一般來說在市面上可以見到的種類如下:

Apteronotidae 光背電鰻科 (=線翎電鰻科)

Apteronotus albifrons
黑魔鬼

Apteronotus leptorhynchus
咖啡魔鬼(=金線咖啡魔鬼)
Apteronotus bonapartii 黑傑克飛刀
Sternarchogiton sp. 豬鼻飛刀 (=龍鱗飛刀) (APT進口)
Adontosternarchus sp. cf. balaenops 大理石迷彩飛刀 (=大理石飛刀, 麻花飛刀) (APT進口)
Adontosternarchus sp. cf. nebulosus 大理石斑點飛刀 (=豹紋飛刀, 並非APT進口的豹紋飛刀) (台族進口)
Orthorsternarchus tamandua 火鶴飛刀
Compsaraia samueli 恐龍飛刀
Sternarchorhynchus sp. cf. bristkii 象鼻飛刀 (=小象飛刀, 金線象鼻飛刀) (APT進口)
Sternarchorhynchus sp. cf. roseni 象鼻飛刀1 (台族進口) (亦參看此圖)
Sternarchorhynchus sp. cf. mormyrus 象鼻飛刀2 (台族進口)
Gymnotidae 裸背電鰻科
Gymnotus carapo
(廣義的) 虎紋飛刀 (=咖啡虎紋飛刀, 皇冠虎紋飛刀)

Gymnotus
sp. cf. pedanopterus 斑馬飛刀

Gymnotus
sp. cf. cataniapo 混在斑馬飛刀進來的物種
Gymnotus sp. tigre 虎紋飛刀

Electrophorus electricus
電鰻
Rhamphichthyidae 砂電鰻科
Rhamphichthys rostratus
長鼻迷彩飛刀 (=迷彩飛刀)
Gymnorhamphichthys rodoni 尖嘴帶紋飛刀
Sternopygidae 鰭電鰻科 (=胸肛魚科)
Eigenmannia virescens
玻璃飛刀
Sternopygus sp. 一種混在玻璃飛刀中進口的魚
Hypopomidae 無齒刀魚科
Brachyhypopomus brevirostris 豹紋飛刀
Steatogenys duidae 黃金大理石飛刀
Steatogenys sp. cf. elegans 斑節飛刀

我們對最近進口的幾種"象鼻飛刀"特別感興趣. 這類的魚在網路上幾乎沒有什麼圖片, 就算有, 也有許多鑑定錯誤的情況, 以fishbase來說, 其所顯示的Sternarchorhynchus oxyrhyncus就應該是張被誤鑑定的圖片(正確鑑定者見此圖片). 我們試著根據Eigenmann & Ward (1905)的裸背電鰻科專著以及Compos-da-Paz (2000)年所著的論文來鑑定這些象鼻飛刀, 結果發現最近進口到台灣的象鼻飛刀可能分屬三個完全不同的物種. APT所進口的比較接近S. bristkii, 背方具有金線, 其吻部較短, 且其彎曲的角度較大. 而台族水族所進口的象鼻飛刀則混有兩個種, 一個種不具背金線, 臀鰭完全是黑色的, 根據Compos-da-Paz所提供的檢索表, 最接近的種是S. mormyrus, 但吻部型態仍有一些差異. 另一個種亦具有背上的金線, 但吻部較APT進口的種長, 彎曲角度小, 臀鰭只有邊緣是黑色的(參看此圖), 根據檢索表所提供的資訊, 這個種比較接近S. roseni. Fishbase中可以見到Sternachella schotti這個種也具有背部的線條, 不過這個特徵應該只是光背電鰻屬間的趨同演化所造成的. 在飼養上, 象鼻飛刀與其它魚都可以和平相處, 不過若與同種飛刀混養, 則應該要有足夠的躲藏地點與夠大的空間. 以一個兩尺缸來說最好不要容納兩隻以上, 以免因為個體間的打鬥而受傷或拒食.

2009年5月23日 星期六

2009-05-23新進魚隻

Bario steindachneri 龍鱗燈 x 10
Hemigrammus sp. cf. ocellifer 龍鱗燈裏的很大隻貴三三雜燈 x 50 (今日最大冏)
Sternarchorhynchus sp. cf. oxyrhynchux 台族的象鼻飛刀 (不是APT的金背象鼻飛刀, 又稱小象飛刀) x 3
Sternarchorhynchus sp. cf. oxyrhynchus 混在"台族的象鼻飛刀"中的另一種飛刀 x 1
Steatogenys sp. cf. duidae 黃金大理石飛刀 x 10
Adontosternarchus (?) sp cf. nebulosus "台族的大理石斑點飛刀" (=豹紋飛刀) x 10 (並非APT進口的那種大理石斑點飛刀)
Adontosternarchus sp. cf. devenanzii APT的大理石斑點飛刀 x 3
Gymnorhamphichthys rondoni 尖嘴帶紋飛刀 (=尖嘴玻璃飛刀, 帶紋玻璃飛刀) x 6
Sphaerichthys selatanensis 賽拉飛船 x 4
Pseudohemiodon apithanos 陰陽直升機 (熊貓直升機, 變色龍直升機) x 3

魚隻來源: 台族水族, 石頭水族
圖片連結: akvariesiden.akvariefisk.dk (photo credit: Karsten Keibel)

2009年5月22日 星期五

那個"Corydoras "semi-black"是什麼碗糕?

同樣是台族水族在5/20所進的鼠魚. 其實秘魯方面並沒有給什麼了不起的名字, 先是送來以上這兩張亞成魚照片, 然後再寄出如這個blog所顯示的更小的魚. 這條魚在日本有一個神奇的名字"セミアキルスブラックバタフライ", 意思是"蝴蝶黑影鼠", 不過因為日本人在網頁上標示的是"semi-black", 所以就暫時以Corydoras "semi-black"來稱呼. 好的, 所以牠會是黑影鼠Corydoras semiaquilus嗎? 所謂的黑影鼠一直被認為有"很多型"(看這邊的說法), 然後巴西的和秘魯也被當成不同的商品流通, 此外, 所謂秘魯產的黑影鼠還有一個長的像帝王鼠的東東(Corydoras sp. aff. semiaquilus Peru). 我們目前的初步序列分析顯示其實黑影鼠, 柯瑞塔鼠(C. coriatae)與佛利律鼠(C. fowleri)可能只是同一個種的不同色型, 而這些色型間也有不少的中間型個體. 不過巴西與秘魯產的族群是否都是同一個種還很難說. 至於這隻"semi-black"的特色是在於背鰭以後的斑紋破碎化, 而不像所謂的黑影鼠, 柯瑞塔鼠或佛利律鼠一樣具有沿著側線分布的連續黑色斑塊. 這隻老鼠是否真的如某些玩家所稱就是黑影鼠? 或其實是一個新的物種, 等我們有時間把序列搞出來就知道啦.

巴西東南部聖埃斯皮里圖州碧玉樹蟾屬之兩新種

文獻來源: Caramaschi U, de Pádua Almeida A, Gasparini JL. 2009. Description of two new species of Sphaenorhynchus (Anura, Hylidae) from the State of Espírito Santo, Southeastern Brazil. Zootaxa 2115: 34-46. [摘要下載]

Abstract Two new hylid frog species of the genus Sphaenorhynchus are described from Lagoa Nova (17o57’89”S, 40o25’80”W), Fazenda Gemada, Municipality of Mucurici, State of Espírito Santo, southeastern Brazil. Sphaenorhynchus botocudo sp. nov., a medium sized species (SVL 23.9–29.3 mm in males), is characterized by snout truncate in dorsal view and acute in profile, tympanum concealed, presence of a black line from the tip of snout to eye, delimiting the canthus rostralis, a distinctive longitudinal white spot under the eye, and a white stripe delimited above and below by clear brown lines, from the posterior corner of eye to the groin. Sphaenorhynchus mirim sp. nov., a small sized species (SVL 15.7–18.2 mm in males), is distinguished by the snout truncate in dorsal view and rounded, slightly acute in profile, tympanum concealed, vocal sac developed, single, subgular, extending to the chest and entering the arms, whithout longitudinal lateral folds, vomerine teeth absent, absence of a black line from the tip of snout to eye, absence of distinctive longitudinal white spot under the eye, and absence of white stripe or brown lines on dorsolateral region.

印尼西蘭島產裸趾虎之一新種

文獻來源: Oliver P, Edgar P, Mumpuni, Iskandar DT, Lilley R. 2009. A new species of bent-toed gecko (Cyrtodactylus: Gekkonidae) from Seram Island, Indonesia. Zootaxa 2115: 47–55. [摘要下載]

Abstract A new species of Cyrtodacylus is described from the island of Seram, Maluku Province, Indonesia. Cyrtodactylus nuaulu sp. nov. can be distinguished from other described Cyrtodactylus by the combination of moderate size, dorsal colouration consisting of relatively few large dark brown blotches, presence of a precloacal groove and whorls of dentate tubercles extending the length of the tail. The new species is the fourth reptile currently known only from Seram and surrounding islands, and the herpetofauna of this area appears to include a small but biogeographically significant endemic component.

若這條蛇出現在其它地方是否就變成"顯示生態保育頗有成效'?

消防隊員據報使用捕蛇夾捕捉這條臭青母,牠死命掙扎,費了番工夫才拉出來。照片/芬園消防分隊提供

媽呀!馬桶又有蛇【聯合晚報╱記者劉明岩/彰化縣報導】2009.05.22 03:01 pm [網址]

「趕快來!我家馬桶有一條蛇。」彰化縣芬園鄉林姓婦人昨天驚慌地打119報案,芬園消防分隊據報趕往處理,發現馬桶內真的有一條長吐蛇信的臭青母,在使用捕蛇夾,費5分鐘,才將這條1.5公尺、重3台斤粗壯臭青母拉出來。屋主說,如果未發現蛇就往馬桶坐上去,下體恐怕難逃被蛇大咬了。

住在芬園鄉中正路的林姓婦人,昨天上午10時許,與女兒在浴室,聽到馬桶的水有湧動聲,趨前查看,以為有一條「黑色帶子」在馬桶裡,初時不以為意,但突然「黑色帶子」竄起還伸吐蛇信,才知道是條大蛇,兩人嚇得臉色發青。

芬園消防分隊據報後,由消防隊員周凱迪等人趕往處理,周凱迪說,趕到現場後,查看馬桶卻沒見到蛇的蹤影,只得按馬桶沖水開關,嘗試將蛇沖到化糞池。他們隨後到林宅後方的化糞池查看,這是一處舊式的化糞池,採外露式接管,研判蛇是從排水管爬進馬桶,不過,仍然未見蛇蹤,只得再回到浴室。周凱迪只得告訴林姓婦人,如果再發現蛇蹤,可馬上再通報消防分隊。

當他們才剛跨出門外,就聽到林姓婦人尖叫:「蛇又跑出來了」,周凱迪發現馬桶裡水確有湧動跡象,即由另消防員林育信拿著捕獸夾悄悄地守在馬桶邊,隨時出手抓蛇。果然,水波再度湧動,馬桶裡慢慢伸出蛇頭,依蛇身紋路研判是條臭青母,林育信、周凱迪順勢用兩捕獸夾,精準夾住蛇頭展開人蛇大戰。

由於這尾臭青母很大條,力量大,蛇身卡在排水管還死命掙扎,林育信只得抽放,費了約5分鐘,才將臭青母夾出來帶到郊區野放,林姓一家人也鬆了口氣。

從事消防工作20多年的芬園消防分隊小隊長洪崇涼說,這是彰化縣第一次傳出馬桶裡躲蛇。依研判,這條蛇應是順著舊化糞池外露的排水管爬進馬桶,建議民眾應改善舊化糞池的排水管道,做好阻絕設施,以免蛇類長驅直入。

幾天前,一名住南投縣埔里鎮山區的林姓男子,坐馬桶小解時,就發生被躲在馬桶裡的蛇咬傷下體。

【2009/05/22 聯合晚報】

帕金森美人是什麼碗糕?

看到這個名字本來有點好笑, 想說還有"阿茲海默美人"嗎? Melanotaenia parkinsoni這條魚在過去曾經被稱為"翡翠美人"或"彩虹美人", 不過這兩個中文俗名都是相當令人感到困惑的, 因為這條魚根本不具綠色, 也沒有隨著角度不同所顯現所謂彩虹光澤, 或許叫帕金森美人還是ok的. 這條產在新幾內亞的魚在水族市場上的出現較晚, 不過在東南亞已經有相當的人工繁殖魚, 在台灣至少在去年曾經出現過大小兩批魚, 不過因為出現在台北的小魚的顏色不明顯而且價格較高, 大魚又僅出現在高雄某家陽春水族館, 因此能見度很低. 不過牠的顏色搭配與多變化的體色(有紅色, 橙色黃色個體)在黑帶魚屬中是非常獨特的. 我們的成魚已經飼養一段時間, 比較起Glossolepis(xx蘋果)來說領域性沒有那麼明顯, 對人工飼料的接受度也非常高, 唯一要注意的是水的硬度不能太低(GH 8-15).

魚隻來源: 石頭水族
圖片連結: petshop-zoomania.com

新增保育類野生動物物種說明摺頁

完整DM之pdf檔請由林務局自然保育網下載

國際生物多樣性日相關活動一覽表

活動網址在此, 另請見林務局的新聞稿

立院初審通過 禁買賣活體保育動物

立院初審通過 禁買賣活體保育動物【聯合晚報╱記者邱珮瑜/台北報導】
2009.05.21 02:58 pm

立法院經濟委員會上午初審通過「野生動物保育法第35條及第40條條文修正草案」,明確禁止買賣活體保育類野生動物,擴大保育範圍,避免誤導民眾對野保法的認知。

日前發生「屏東養龜大王」案件,屏東地方法院以未違反野保法第35條規定,認定販賣保育類野生動物的「產製品」才有罪,買賣活體為「無罪」,民進黨立委田秋菫認為,報導標題不但使民眾產生困惑,無形間也誤導大眾對野保法的認知。

為避免同樣情事再度發生,田秋菫提案修正野保法第35條和第40條,明訂保育類野生動物或其產製品,非經主管機關之同意,不得買賣或在公共場所陳列、展示。

【2009/05/21 聯合晚報】

另請參見中時的文字

兩棲鯢(=俗稱的大鰻螈)如何演化成這麼大隻?

文獻來源: Bonett RM, Chippindale PT, Moler PE, Van Devender RW, Wake DB (2009) Evolution of Gigantism in Amphiumid Salamanders. PLoS ONE 4(5): e5615. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0005615

Abstract
The Amphiumidae contains three species of elongate, permanently aquatic salamanders with four diminutive limbs that append one, two, or three toes. Two of the species, Amphiuma means and A. tridactylum, are among the largest salamanders in the world, reaching lengths of more than one meter, whereas the third species (A. pholeter), extinct amphiumids, and closely related salamander families are relatively small. Amphiuma means and A. tridactylum are widespread species and live in a wide range of lowland aquatic habitats on the Coastal Plain of the southeastern United States, whereas A. pholeter is restricted to very specialized organic muck habitats and is syntopic with A. means. Here we present analyses of sequences of mitochondrial and nuclear loci from across the distribution of the three taxa to assess lineage diversity, relationships, and relative timing of divergence in amphiumid salamanders. In addition we analyze the evolution of gigantism in the clade. Our analyses indicate three lineages that have diverged since the late Miocene, that correspond to the three currently recognized species, but the two gigantic species are not each other's closest relatives. Given that the most closely related salamander families and fossil amphiumids from the Upper Cretaceous and Paleocene are relatively small, our results suggest at least two extreme changes in body size within the Amphuimidae. Gigantic body size either evolved once as the ancestral condition of modern amphiumas, with a subsequent strong size reduction in A. pholeter, or gigantism independently evolved twice in the modern species, A. means and A. tridactylum. These patterns are concordant with differences in habitat breadth and range size among lineages, and have implications for reproductive isolation and diversification of amphiumid salamanders.

圖片連結: WDFW (photo credit: Brad Moon)

2009-05-22新進動物

Platysternon megacephalum megacephalum 大頭龜(原名亞種) x 2
Platysternon megacephalum peguense 大頭龜(海南亞種) (?) x 1
Malayemys subtrijuga 馬來食蝸龜 x 2

以下為"小朋友一夕之間不想養了"之收容項目:
Corydoras "megametae" XX鼠 x 1
Corydoras njisseni 公主鼠 x 1
Corydoras guapore 瓜波鼠 x 2
Corydoras schwartzi "parallelus" 二線公主鼠 (=帕拉雷諾鼠) (其實就是舒瓦茲鼠) x 1
Corydoras oiapoquensis 奧柏根鼠 x 2
Corydoras evelynae 煙圈鼠 x 1
Corydoras davidsandsi 大衛鼠 x 1
Corydoras sp. 怪怪豹鼠 x 2
Corydoras sp. 金線綠鼠 (人工CB) x 4
Corydoras sp. 酒紅金線綠鼠 (人工CB) x 2
Corydoras sp. cf. schultzei XX鼠 x 4 (阿勇水族所稱的"青鼠")
Centromochlus perugiae 小豹鯨 x 5
Centromochlus reticulatus 網紋豹鯨 x 3
Tatia intermedia "銀河"豹鯨 x 4
Varanus indicus 紅樹巨蜥 x 1
Leiopython albertisii 白吻蟒 x 1
Python curtus (subspecies undetermined) 血蟒 x 1
Lamprophis fuliginosus 非洲家蛇 x 2

動物來源: 有魚水族 (新莊), 某某小朋友
圖片連結: BeetleBlog

2009年5月21日 星期四

龍鱗燈(新牛奶燈)是什麼碗糕?

這是台族水族在5/20左右進口的新魚, 乍看之下這條魚像極了紅目(Moenkhausia sanctaefilomenae)的放大版, 又混和了紅裙馬克(Markiana nigripinnis)的厚實體型和大大的鱗片, 這條魚有點類似從未在水族市場上出現的Bario steindachneri, 為Eigenmann於1893年描述的魚種. 在狀況好的時候龍鱗燈的鰭應該是呈現橘色, 不過性格還不太清楚, 依那個嘴部構造來看最好不要與中小型燈魚混養比較保險. 而MoenkhausiaBarioMarkiana的鑑識特徵最重要的是尾鰭(尤其是黑斑部位)是否有鱗片覆蓋. 另外Moenkhausia sanctaefilomenae種群還有好幾個近緣種, 例如M. pyrophthalma, M. australe, M. oligolepis (大紅目), M. agassizii, M. "Rio Tocantins", M. "Rio Uruguay"以及M. "Rio Mamore". 此外Hemigrammus newboldi也有類似的斑紋, 大家可以比較一下.

圖片來源: Characoids of the World (photo credit: Harald Schultz)

2009年5月20日 星期三

烏拉圭河上游產木紋小精靈的四個新種

文獻來源: Carvalho, T.P. & Reis, R.E. (2009): Four new species of Hisonotus (Siluriformes: Loricariidae) from the upper rio Uruguay, southeastern South America, with a review of the genus in the rio Uruguay basin. Zootaxa, 2113: 1–40. [摘要下載]

Abstract
Four new species of Hisonotus are described from the upper course of the rio Uruguay basin in Brazil: Hisonotus iota from the rio Chapecó drainage; Hisonotus leucophrys from rio Rancho Grande and rio Ariranhas; Hisonotus megaloplax from the rio Passo Fundo drainage; and Hisonotus montanus from the rio Canoas drainage. The species Epactionotus aky, described from the arroyo Yabotí-Guazú drainage in Argentina, is transferred to Hisonotus and rediagnosed. Hisonotus candombe is considered a junior synonym of H. ringueleti. The new taxa, together with H. nigricauda, H. ringueleti, H. charrua, and H. aky represent the genus Hisonotus in the rio Uruguay basin. A taxonomic key for Hisonotus in the rio Uruguay basin is provided. Their distributions are discussed under biogeographic patterns previously proposed for the rio Uruguay basin.

Atheris mabuensis - 莫三比克北部產之新種角蝰

文獻來源: Branch WR, Bayliss J. 2009. A new species of Atheris (Serpentes: Viperidae) from northern Mozambique. Zootaxa 2113: 41-54. [摘要下載]

Abstract
A new species of forest viper (Atheris Serpentes: Viperidae) is described from Mount Mabu and Mount Namuli, northern Mozambique. This is the most southerly record of the genus, and the first record from Mozambique. Features of scalation, colour, body form and behaviour distinguish the new species from all other African Atheris, particularly its small size (maximum total length 384mm), retention of juvenile colouration in adults, and relatively low ventral, subcaudal and labial scale counts. It appears to be a dwarf, possibly paedomorphic, species that feeds among leaf litter on small frogs and geckos. The discovery of the new species in isolated populations in mid-altitude forest remnants on Mount Mabu and Mount Namuli, emphasizes the high conservation importance of the region.

巴西穆庫里河產河口性比目魚之一新種

文獻來源: Ramos, R.T.C., Ramos, T.P.A. & Lopes, P.R.D. (2009): New species of Achirus (Pleuronectiformes: Achiridae) from Northeastern Brazil. Zootaxa, 2113: 55-62. [摘要下載]

Abstract
Eight species are considered valid in the genus Achirus (Lacépède), distributed on both sides of the Americas, mainly in marine and estuarine waters with A. novoae being the only species of this genus restricted to freshwaters of the Orinoco basin and its delta. A new species, A. mucuri, is described from the estuary of the Mucuri River, a small system in Bahia state, northeastern Brazil. A. mucuri differs from congeners, except A. novoae, in having a connection between the branchiostegal membrane and the isthmus. A. mucuri differs from A. novoae in its labial fimbriae and latero-sensory cephalic canal pattern.

紫豔鉛筆終於有正式的學名 - Nannostomus rubrocaudatus

文獻來源: Zarske, A. (2009): Nannostomus rubrocaudatus sp. n. – ein neuer Ziersalmler aus Peru (Teleostei: Characiformes: Lebiasinidae). Vertebrate Zoology, 59 (1): 11-23. [全文下載]

Abstract
Nannostomus rubrocaudatus sp. n. is described from Peru. The new species is closely related with N. mortenthaleri and N. marginatus. The coloration of the males of N. rubrocaudatus sp. n. in life is extremly different from these species. The new species has a clearly developed sexual dichomatism, which is not to see in N. marginatus. The sexual dimorphism in the anal-fi n described by WEITZMAN & WEITZMAN (2003) for N. mortenthaleri was also found in N. rubrocaudatus sp. n. and in a „colour variety“ of N. marginatus from the rio Negro basin.左右對齊

巴西產皇冠(Laetacara)屬之一新種以及紫肚皇冠(L. dorsigera)的重新描述

文獻來源: Ottoni, F.P. & Costa, W.J.E.M. (2009): Description of a new species of Laetacara KULLANDER, 1986 from central Brazil and re-description of Laetacara dorsigera (HECKEL, 1840) (Labroidei: Cichlidae: Cichlasomatinae). Vertebrate Zoology, 59 (1): 41-48. [全文連結]

Abstract
A new species of Laetacara is described from the rio Verde, rio Araguaia basin, São Miguel do Araguaia, Goiás, Brazil; L. dorsigera is re-described. The new species from the rio Verde, rio Araguaia differs from all the species of the genus by its low dorsal-fi n ray number. It is distinguished from L. thayeri by the presence of a caudal-fi n peduncle spot and by the presence of cycloid scales on side of head. The new species also differs from L. fulvipinnis and L. fl avilabris by some meristic characters. It differs from L. dorsigera by a narrow ectopterygoid and by some meristic characters, and from L. curviceps and L. dorsigera by the lack of a spot on dorsal fi n. Laetacara dorsigera differs from L. curviceps and the new species from the rio Verde, rio Araguaia basin by a wide ectopterygoid and by some meristic and morphometric characters; it is distinguished from the other species of the genus by some morphometric and meristic characters.

生活在地底的蚓螈為何需要繽紛的體色?

Fig. 2 Midpoint-rooted Bayesian phylogeny obtained under the optimal partitioning strategy for the 12S, 16S and RAG1 genes data set.

文獻來源: Wollenberg KC, Measey GJ. 2009. Why colour in subterranean vertebrates? Exploring the evolution of colour pattern in caecilian amphibeans. Journal of Evolutionary Biology 22(2009): 1046-1056. [摘要下載]

Abstract
The proximate functions of animal skin colour are difficult to assign as they can result from natural selection, sexual selection or neutral evolution under genetic drift. Most often colour patterns are thought to signal visual stimuli; so, their presence in subterranean taxa is perplexing. We evaluate the adaptive nature of colour patterns in nearly a third of all known species of caecilians, an order of amphibians most of which live in tropical soils and leaf litter. We found that certain colour pattern elements in caecilians can be explained based on characteristics concerning above-ground movement. Our study implies that certain caecilian colour patterns have convergently evolved under selection and we hypothesize their function most likely to be a synergy of aposematism and crypsis, related to periods when individuals move overground. In a wider context, our results suggest that very little exposure to daylight is required to evolve and maintain a varied array of colour patterns in animal skin.

另可參考Dr. K.C. Wollenberg的個人研究網頁以其此處的說明

2009年5月16日 星期六

彩虹蚺下各"亞種"皆被提升為"種"

文獻來源: Passos P, Fernandes R (2008) Revision of the Epicrates cenchria Complex (Serpentes: Boidae). Herpetological Monographs 22(1): 1-30 [摘要下載]

Abstract
The Epicrates cenchria complex is endemic to the Neotropical region, occurring in mainland portions of Central and South America. The taxonomic status of the nine currently recognized subspecies (E. c. alvarezi, E. c. assisi, E. c. barbouri, E. c. cenchria, E. c. crassus, E. c. gaigei, E. c. hygrophilus, E. c. maurus, and E. c. polylepis), were evaluated based on external morphology, osteology, and hemipenis characters. Results obtained through quantitative and qualitative analyses support the recognition of E. alvarezi, E. assisi, E. cenchria, E. crassus, and E. maurus as distinct species based on statistically robust delimitation of species boundaries.