2010年2月27日 星期六

2010-02-27新進魚隻

Phenacogrammus altus 歐斯得月球燈 x 5
Boraras ? 彩虹小丑燈 x 13 (含雜燈)
Belontia signata 斯里蘭卡梳尾魚 x 2

魚隻來源: 水世界, 台族水族, 某蝦米大大

2010年2月26日 星期五

2010年2月25日 星期四

2010-02-25新進魚隻

Corydoras melini 紅斜紋鼠 x 2 (不要笑, 幾乎沒買過耶)
Corydoras loxozonus 黑箭斜紋鼠 x 2 (理由同上)
Corydoras gracilis 迷你鼠 x 10 (人好所以收容)
Corydoras sp. cf. arcuatus 秘魯產印弟安鼠 ??? x 2 (名字很威, 但看不出差在那裏)
Danio dangila 長鬚斑馬 x 4
Rasbora spp. 不會分的小波魚 x 若干

魚隻來源: 哲園水族, 澤苑珍魚館, 方舟水族

2010年2月23日 星期二

2010年2月21日 星期日

野生地鼠陸龜因草酸引發腎衰竭致死案例

文獻來源: Jacobson ER, Berry KH, Stacy B, Huzella LM, Kalasinsky VF, Fleetwood ML, Mense MG. 2009. Oxalosis in wild desert tortoises, Gopherus agassizii. Journal of Wildlife Diseases 45(4): 982-988.

Abstract
We necropsied a moribund, wild adult male desert tortoise (Gopherus agassizii) with clinical signs of respiratory disease and elevated plasma biochemical analytes indicative of renal disease (blood urea nitrogen [415 mg/dl], uric acid [11.8 mg/dl], sodium [>180 mmol/l] and chloride [139 mmol/l]). Moderate numbers of birefringent oxalate crystals, based on infrared and electron microscopy, were present within renal tubules; small numbers were seen in colloid within thyroid follicles. A retrospective analysis of 66 additional cases of wild desert tortoises was conducted to determine whether similar crystals were present in thyroid and kidney. The tortoises, from the Mojave and Sonoran deserts, were necropsied between 1992 and 2003 and included juveniles and adults. Tortoises were classified as healthy (those that died due to trauma and where no disease was identified after necropsy and evaluation by standard laboratory tests used for other tortoises) or not healthy (having one or more diseases or lesions). For all 67 necropsied tortoises, small numbers of crystals of similar appearance were present in thyroid glands from 44 of 54 cases (81%) and in kidneys from three of 65 cases (5%). Presence of oxalates did not differ significantly between healthy and unhealthy tortoises, between age classes, or between desert region, and their presence was considered an incidental finding. Small numbers of oxalate crystals seen within the kidney of two additional tortoises also were considered an incidental finding. Although the source of the calcium oxalate could not be determined, desert tortoises are herbivores, and a plant origin seems most likely. Studies are needed to evaluate the oxalate content of plants consumed by desert tortoises, and particularly those in the area where the tortoise in renal failure was found.

2010年2月20日 星期六

2010-02-20新進動物與魚隻

Terrapene ornata luteola 沙漠錦箱龜 x 2
Corydoras sp. "naoki" (=C092) or mususu longnose (???) 長吻一線帝王鼠(???) (長吻納奇鼠) x 7
Corydoras evelynae "Peru" Type I x 3
Corydoras evelynae "Peru" Type II x 3
Corydoras evelynae "Peru" Type III x 1
Trichopodus cantoris 蛇皮馬甲 x 3
Ageneiosus sp. cf. piperatus 玻璃虎鯨 x 20
Ichthyborus ornatus 紅木紋飛鳳火箭 x 7
Malpulutta kretseri 潘安鬥魚 x 6 (據說是什麼紅型) (見此討論)

Corydoras evelynae實在是很妙的魚. 它的模式產地在巴西, 但是哥倫比亞及秘魯都能出口, 所以倒底是這條魚(或這群魚)分布廣泛? 還是各地的煙圈鼠的各型都是當地鼠魚經由先然雜交產生的產物? 至於那些長得很像naoki的魚可參考先前2009-10-05的討論. 這次進口的"naoki"與2008年進口的那批魚是有一點點不太一樣. 這次進口的魚在胸部出現了類似acutus的細點, 而不是過去那批naoki的粗斑點. 但是已知的相似物種分布在秘魯境內的除了naoki還有所謂的"Corydoras sp. Mususu longnose"和"Corydoras sp. Sazan Kuros super"(コリドラス スーパーサザンクロス), 所以情況倒底是怎樣, 我不太清楚耶. naoki是一條與C91與斑鰭鼠共棲的魚, 但C91在近年已經被好事的日本人分成好幾個型, 這些型是否暗示著任何地理分化我還不清楚, 但如果這次進口的naoki真的是秘魯來的, 有沒有一個可能, 就是naoki (=C92)與C91在不同的河段的斑紋具有趨同的現象呢? 然後這樣的分化就形成了所謂naoki, Mususu longnose或Sazan Kuros呢? 這次進口的魚, 讓我東想西想後, 我會傾向於先把它當成Corydoras Mususu longnose, 因為它仍然缺乏一般naoki所具備的三個特徵: (1) 吻部與鰓蓋的黑斑; (2) 側線黑線到尾柄部加粗; (3) 胸部黑斑集中, 並非細點分散. 以下是幾個網頁所具有的"naoki"影象:
註一: naoki不是一個正式學名, 只是一個商用名
註二: 那個Sazan Kuros搞半天是"Southern Cross"的日文發音, 意指"南十字星", 但有人認為Mususu LN與Southern Cross是一樣的魚

魚隻來源: 華洋水族, 石頭水族 & APT

2010年2月19日 星期五

2010-02-19新進魚隻

Bagrichthys macracanthus 一線駱駝 x 2 (學名問題看這邊)
Corydoras sp. C121 皇冠紅頭鼠 x 1
Corydoras loxozonas 黑箭斜紋鼠 x 3 (體色介於"deckeri"與loxozonas的型)

只是順道一提, 目前根據我們的分子證據, loxozonas, axelrodi (英哥鼠, 黃金英哥鼠, 二線英哥鼠), 噴點英哥鼠, "deckeri"迪克英哥鼠, 哥倫比亞煙圈鼠(C90), 甚至是面具鼠(metae)與紅斜紋鼠(melini)間可能存在有複雜的天然雜交現象.....[參考這邊的說明]

魚隻來源: 永信水族(屏東店)

[買到品質優良的耗材為何像追求真愛般困難]我的水妖精為什麼又塞住啦?

我們有很多小缸只使用這種兩個1/4圓柱的水妖精, 因為這型的水妖精的綿可以貼壁, 對某些懸浮的髒東西有很好的吸附效果, 而且不若一般圓型水妖精那麼佔空間或擾動水面(對於需要築泡巢的魚種來說), 但是這型的水妖精最大的問題就是動不動不出水了, 沒氣了. 追根究柢就是品質不良, 除了先前我所提過的, 海綿的孔隙太細(不同批不一樣呢)會導致髒東西卡在表層使海綿失去作用, 就是連通部份的孔道設計不良: (1) 透明的出氣管太長阻斷底部通氣; (2) 通氣孔的施作品質很差, 所以一點點髒東西就可以使那邊塞住完全出不了水. 所以囉, 我們現在就只好在出氣管與通氣孔做一點改善, 以免幾乎天天都會遇上水妖精不出水的大冏......

食鳥蛛科Lyrognathus屬(馬來西亞粗腿, 印度赤灰)之系統分類研究發掘了婆羅洲產L. fuscus, L. achilles與龍目島產L. lessunda三個新種, 而L. saltator需被重新描述

文獻來源: West RC, Nunn SC. 2010. A taxonomic revision of the tarantula spider genus Lyrognathus Pocock, 1895 (Araneae, Theraphosidae), with notes on the Selenocosmiinae. Zootaxa 2362: 1-43. [摘要連結]

Abstract
The tarantula genus Lyrognathus Pocock 1895 is revised with three new species described: L. achilles sp. nov. from Gunung Nibung, Borneo; L. fuscus sp. nov. from Simpang Kubur, Borneo and L. lessunda sp. nov. from Lombok Island, Indonesia. The male of L. robustus Smith 1988 is described for the first time, the female is redescribed. L. crotalus Pocock 1895 is considered a senior synonym of L. pugnax Pocock 1900. Several new characters are discussed, with Lyrognathus keyed to species. The diagnosis of the Selenocosmiinae is amended. Zoogeographic distribution, natural history and subfamilial relationships with proposed sister genera Selenocosmia Ausserer 1871 and Coremiocnemis Simon 1892 are discussed. Lyrognathus saltator is redescribed. Selenocosmia lyra Strand 1913 is considered a nomen dubium.

2010年2月16日 星期二

中國雲南產副鰍屬新種南盤江副鰍的記述

文獻來源: Min, R., Chen, X. & Yang, J. (2010): Paracobitis nanpanjiangensis, a new loach (Balitoridae: Nemacheilinae) from Yunnan, China. Environmental Biology of Fishes, DOI: 10.1007/s10641-010-9587-z (online pre-publication)

Abstract
A new species of the genus Paracobitis, Paracobitis nanpanjiangensis is described from tributaries of the Nanpanjiang River drainage in China. It is distinguished from its congeners, except P. oligolepis and P. wujiangensis, by body scaleless or with rudimentary scales (caudal peduncle with several deeply embedded scales). It can be differentiated from P. wujiangensis by the complete lateral line (vs. incomplete), lower dorsal crest reaching the vertical of origin of anal fin (vs. shorter and higher dorsal crest not reaching the base of anal fin). It is distinguished from P. oligolepis by the following characters: branched dorsal fin with 81/2 (a few 91/2) rays (vs. 91/2), interspaces between bars in front of dorsal fin conspicuously thinner than those behind (vs. vermiform markings), dorsal head without vermiform markings or obscure (vs. clearly vermiform markings on dorsal head), vertebrae 4 + 36–38 (vs. 4 + 39–41).

2010-02-16新進魚隻

Channa sp. cf. gachua Myanmar 印第安雷龍 x 1

2010年2月15日 星期一

一妻多夫制的黑間鳳凰(Julidochromis transcriptus)雌性馭夫有術: 利用三角型的楔形產卵空間使體型不同的雄性皆可為卵授精, 各自照顧北鼻, 而且不會靠夭吵架

[superlink: RoySocB]
文獻來源: Kohda M, Heg D, Makino Y, Takeyama T, Shibata J-Y, Watanabe K, Munehara H, Hori M, Awata S. 2009. Living on the wedge: female control of paternity in a cooperatively polyandrous cichlid. Proceedings of the Royal Society B 276(1676): 4207-4214. [link]

Abstract
Theories suggest that, in cooperatively breeding species, female control over paternity and reproductive output may affect male reproductive skew and group stability. Female paternity control may come about through cryptic female choice or female reproductive behaviour, but experimental studies are scarce. Here, we show a new form of female paternity control in a cooperatively polyandrous cichlid fish (Julidochromis transcriptus), in which females prefer wedge-shaped nesting sites. Wedge-shaped sites allowed females to manipulate the siring success of the group member males by spawning the clutch at the spot where the large males were just able to enter and fertilize the outer part of the clutch. Small males fertilized the inner part of the clutch, protected from the large aggressive males, leading to low male reproductive skew. Small males provided more brood care than large males. Multiple paternity induced both males to provide brood care and reduced female brood care accordingly. This is, to our knowledge, the first documented case in a species with external fertilization showing female mating behaviour leading to multiple male paternity and increased male brood care as a result.

馬達加斯加刺尾鬣蜥利用共棲之馬達加斯加授帶鳥對其共同天敵的警示鳴唱作為警戒訊息

[superlink: wikipedia, photo credit: JialiangGao]
[superlink: wikipedia, photo credit: flickr user Belgianchocolate]

文獻來源: Ito R, Mori A. 2010.
Vigilance against predators induced by eavesdropping on heterospecific alarm calls in a non-vocal lizard Oplurus cuvieri cuvieri (Reptilia: Iguania). Proc. R. Soc. B published online before print December 23, 2009, doi:10.1098/rspb.2009.2047

Abstract
Prey animals can reduce their risk of predation by detecting potential predators before encounters occur. Some animals gain information about nearby predators by eavesdropping on heterospecific alarm calls. Despite having well-developed ears, most lizards do not use vocal information for intraspecific communication, and few studies have shown practical use of the ears in wild lizards. Here, we show that the Madagascan spiny-tailed iguana (Oplurus cuvieri cuvieri) obtains auditory signals for predator detection. The Madagascan spiny-tailed iguana and the Madagascar paradise flycatcher (Terpsiphone mutata) are syntopic inhabitants of the Ampijoroa dry deciduous forest of Madagascar. The iguana and the flycatcher have neither a predator–prey relationship nor resource competition, but they have shared predators such as raptors and snakes. Using playback experiments, we demonstrated that the iguana discriminates mobbing alarm calls of the flycatcher from its songs and then enhances its vigilance behaviour. Our results demonstrate the occurrence of an asymmetrical ecological relationship between the Madagascan spiny-tailed iguana and the paradise flycatcher through eavesdropping on information about the presence of predators. This implies that indirect interspecific interactions through information recognition may be more common than generally thought in an animal community.

2010年2月14日 星期日

瞭解華人消費動機才能有效掌控對野生動物資源的非永續利用

Understanding Chinese consumer motivation the key to controlling unsustainable wildlife consumption

A survey of consumer attitudes in China concluded urgent action is needed to reduce consumer demand for endangered wildlife Click photo to enlarge China, Beijing, 28 January 2010—Concerted action is needed in China to reduce consumer demand for endangered wildlife, according to a new report by TRAFFIC, wildlife trade monitoring network, into consumer attitudes in China.


Released ahead of Chinese New Year of the Tiger, which begins on 14 February, the report, Understanding the motivations: the first step toward influencing China’s unsustainable wildlife consumption, calls for a reduction in wildlife consumption during the New Year celebrations, normally the peak time for wildlife consumption in the country...[詳全文與完全報告pdf檔下載]

使用四個基因序列重建脂鯉目的親緣關係不支持多數大屬(如Astyana, Hyphessobrycon, Bryconamericus, Hemigrammus)的單系性, 而銀大眼脂鯉亞科(銀銅燈)應僅限用於該屬

文獻來源: Javonillo R, Malabarba LR, Weitzman SH, Burns JR. 2010. Relationships among major lineages of characid fishes (Teleostei: Ostariophysi: Characiformes), based on molecular sequence data, Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution, 54(2): 498-511.

Abstract

The family Characidae is a group of freshwater bony fishes that exhibits high species-level diversity and whose members inhabit parts of Texas, Mexico, and Central and South America. Thus far, morphological data have been of limited use in discerning relationships among subfamilies and incertae sedis genera of the family Characidae. In this study, DNA sequence data from GenBank were combined with new sequences for analyses under Bayesian and parsimony schemes. Sequences fell into four gene partitions, with three genes in the mitochondrial subset (12S, 16S, COI genes) and one gene in the nuclear subset (RAG2 gene). Inferred Bayesian and parsimony-based phylogenies reject the monophyly of certain groups (e.g., Astyanax, Hyphessobrycon, and Bryconamericus), do not reject the monophyly of others (e.g., Cheirodontinae and 'clade A' of previous authors), and present new sister-group hypotheses (e.g., Brittanichthys sister to Paracheirodon). Sister to clade A is a lineage referred to herein as 'clade B' which includes Exodon and exemplars from Cheirodontinae (the most basal lineage within clade B), Aphyocharacinae, Tetragonopterinae, and Characinae (excluding Gnathocharax). 'Clade C' is sister to A + B and contains representatives of large incertae sedis genera (e.g., Hyphessobrycon, Hemigrammus), as well as members of Stethaprioninae. Unless certain other subfamilial names are to be disregarded, the use of Tetragonopterinae should continue to be restricted to species of Tetragonopterus because other genera previously referred to this subfamily grouped in clades A or C, quite distant from Tetragonopterus.

隱孢子蟲症(Cryptosporidiosis)導致四趾陸龜與餅乾龜死亡的案例

文獻來源: Griffin C, Reavill DR, Stacy BA, Childress AL, Wellehan Jr JFX. 2010. Cryptosporidiosis Caused By Two Distinct Species In Russian Tortoises And A Pancake Tortoise, Veterinary Parasitology, In Press

Abstract
Cryptosporidiosis in squamates is well documented, but there is very limited information available on cryptosporidiosis in testudines. We describe three cases of cryptosporidiosis in tortoises with associated pathology. Two Russian tortoises (Agrionemys [Testudo] horsfieldii) and a pancake tortoise (Malacochersus tornieri), all from separate collections, were found dead. At necropsy, two had histological evidence of intestinal cryptosporidiosis and one had gastric cryptosporidiosis. Consensus Cryptosporidium sp. PCR and sequencing was used to identify the Cryptosporidium sp. present in these three tortoises. In the juvenile Russian tortoise with gastric cryptosporidiosis, the organism had 98% homology with a previously reported sequence from an Indian star tortoise isolate. A second chelonian Cryptosporidium sp. was identified in the pancake tortoise and the second Russian tortoise. This sequence was 100% identical to a shorter gene sequence previously reported in a marginated tortoise. This is the first report coordinating pathology with Cryptosporidium characterization in chelonians. The two Cryptosporidium sp. found in tortoises segregate according to site of infection, and there may be further differences in pathology, host range, and transmission. These Cryptosporidium sp. appear to be able to infect diverse tortoise host species. This may be an under-recognized problem in tortoises.

呼吸系統的解剖構造暗示大頭龜是澤龜科(Emydidae)的姐妹群

[根據肺葉形態所重建的現生龜鼈類親緣關係, superlink: ScienceDirecet]
[肺葉形態在羊膜類動物的演化趨勢與特徵狀態, superlink: ScienceDirect]

文獻來源: Lambertz M, Bohme W, Perry SF. 2010. The anatomy of the respiratory system in Platysternon megacephalum Gray, 1831 (Testudines: Cryptodira) and related species, and its phylogenetic implications, Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology - Part A: Molecular & Integrative Physiology, In Press

Abstract

We discuss the morphology of the respiratory system regarding the phylogenetic relation among selected Testudines (Tetrapoda: Amniota). Lung structure and the associated coelomic organization are compared in Platysternon megacephalum and in representatives of the most-likely closely related taxa Chelydridae and Testudinoidea (Emydidae + Testudinidae). P. megacephalum shows horizontal intrapulmonary septation in the medial chambers, dividing them into dorsal and ventral lobes. This structure is found only in Platysternon and in the Emydidae, and is interpreted as a possible synapomorphy for these two taxa. In addition to further suggested synapomorphies for Platysternon and the Testudinoidea, we found - in contrast to previous reports - a small post-pulmonary septum (PPS) and incomplete coelomic compartmentalization in the Chelydridae. Thus, all major taxa of Testudines possess a PPS. Since this structure is also present in mammals, archosaurs and some lepidosaurs, the plesiomorphy of a coelomic compartmentalization by the PPS in amniotes in general should be considered. These preliminary results indicate that further comparative study of the respiratory apparatus might help resolve the phylogenetic relationships among the Testudines, as well as to shed light on its evolution among the Amniota.

國際爬蟲貿易是造成波蘭境內發現外來蜱類的原因

文獻來源: Nowak M. 2010. The international trade in reptiles (Reptilia)--The cause of the transfer of exotic ticks (Acari: Ixodida) to Poland, Veterinary Parasitology, In Press, Available online 20 January 2010, ISSN 0304-4017, DOI: 10.1016/j.vetpar.2010.01.006.

Abstract
The problem of the unnatural transfer of exotic ticks (Acari: Ixodida) on reptiles (Reptilia) imported to Poland is presented. In the period from 2003 to 2007, 382 specimens of reptiles belonging to the following genera were investigated: Testudo, Iguana, Varanus, Gongylophis, Python, Spalerosophis, Psammophis. The reptiles most infested with ticks are imported to Poland from Ghana in Africa, and are the commonly bred terrarium reptiles: Varanus exanthematicus and Python regius. As a result of the investigations, the transfer of exotic ticks on reptiles to Poland was confirmed. There were 2104 specimens of the genera Amblyomma and Hyalomma. The following species were found: Amblyomma exornatum Koch, 1844, Amblyomma flavomaculatum (Lucas, 1846), Amblyomma latum Koch, 1844, Amblyomma nuttalli Donitz, 1909, Amblyomma quadricavum (Schulze, 1941), Amblyomma transversale (Lucas, 1844), Amblyomma varanense (Supino, 1897), Amblyomma sp. Koch, 1844, Hyalomma aegyptium (Linnaeus, 1758). All the species of ticks of genus Amblyomma revealed have been discovered in Poland for the first time. During the research, 13 cases of anomalies of morphological structure were confirmed in the ticks A. flavomaculatum, A. latum and H. aegyptium. The expanding phenomenon of the import of exotic reptiles in Poland and Central Europe is important for parasitological and epidemiological considerations, and therefore requires monitoring and wide-ranging prophylactic activities to prevent the inflow of exotic parasites to Poland.

2010年2月12日 星期五

2010-02-12新進魚隻

Corydoras sp. C140 x 1
Corydoras sp. "super-arcuatus" "Brazil Purus" 普魯斯河產超級印弟安鼠 x 2
Hemiodontichthys acipenserinus 阿扁頭直升機 x 4

先參考枝支部weichwasserfische對阿扁頭直升機的說明, 然後看看上次討論印弟安鼠時, arcuatus的模式標本長啥樣子. 這隻真的有像到真正的arcuatus.....

魚隻來源: 澤苑(台中), 不知名大大

恭祝各位的寵物在2010年平安會生又大隻

感謝各位朋友支持本blog, 大家都這麼愛看表人文, 讓業績蒸蒸日上, 但是本blog並沒有打算成為寵物水族界的龜趣來嘻或朱宅神, 之後會儘量走低調溫馨與溫良恭儉讓路線, 以免被家長告發教壞小孩或在學術界遭到不測.

2010年2月10日 星期三

蛤? 食人魚的學名是"S. rhombeus"?

以下轉載自農委會的農政與農情
農委會為維護人畜安全及生態環境,於民國 89 年 2 月依法公告禁止飼養、輸入或輸出三類動物,包括美洲巨水鼠科(學名:Myocastoridae)、食人魚(學名:Serrasalmus rhombeus)及電鰻科(學名:Electrophoridae)。去年桃園縣發生美洲巨水鼠一批遭民眾野放事件,經桃園縣家畜疾病防治所捕獲,其中 13 隻人道處理, 6 隻絕育後由該縣海洋生物教育館代為留置,供生態教育宣導用。

所謂的"食人魚"意指一個單一物種? 還是一群物種? 當時給這個建議的學者真的知道整個Serrasalmidae裏面倒底有那個屬才是肉食性種類? PygocentrusSerrasalmus要怎麼分? 然後真的知道倒底那一個PygocentrusSerrasalmus物種在南美洲有"無故攻擊"事件嗎? 還是說, 隨便丟一個S. rhombeus這個物種的學名, 湊上一個"食人魚"的名字, 一切完全只是根據道聽塗說的刻板印象呢? 我很同意有很多的生物不應該成為寵物, 而且以台灣人對寵物的態度, 不管什麼樣的生物都可能被遺棄, 但是若大學教授不懂裝懂, 給主管單位指指點點, 長期造成業者與民眾的困擾, 而且造成許多NGO團體複製這些錯誤資訊以訛傳訛, 這樣對於外來種的防治真的是好事嗎? 隨便指稱一個市面上不太常見的物種會咬人, 與藉由公權力鼓勵放任外來大型食用魚的放流, 請問何者對台灣環境的衝擊較大?

水族館遭檢舉販賣食人魚
Practicafishkeeping對食人魚遭電影扭曲形象的看法
JH Mol在2006年對蘇利南的數則偶發性攻擊事件的看法, 他強調許多的所謂食人魚攻擊根本缺乏記載, 而且被攻擊的狀況通常都是因為水域狹小, 人類干擾(小孩跑進食人魚繁殖的池塘玩水)所造成的

如果大型犬隻攻擊鄰居路人的案例那麼多, 為何不禁養大型犬? 更何況狗也是外來種. 所以說科學家的意見與政策常常也不具邏輯性, 憑藉的都是自我感覺良好?

2010年2月9日 星期二

印尼摩鹿加群島產裂足虎Gehyra barea的系統分類地位與新幾內亞西岸Raja Ampat島新種之描述

文獻來源: Oliver P, Sistrom M, Tjaturadi B, Krey K, Richards S. 2010. On the status and relationships of the gecko species Gehyra barea Kopstein 1926, with description of new specimens and a range extension. Zootaxa 2354: 45-55.

Abstract
Gehyra barea is a poorly known gecko species from the southern Banda Islands, Maluku Province, Indonesia, that has received scant attention since it was described in 1926. A combination of morphological characters distinguish the types of this species from all other described Gehyra, and suggest that it is a distinct taxon. These same morphological characters occur in two recently collected specimens from the Raja Ampat Islands, just off the west coast of New Guinea, that we assign to this species, extending the known range of the taxon by over six hundred kilometres. We provide a revised and extended diagnosis and description of the species based on these new specimens. Morphological and genetic data from these specimens indicate G. barea is closely related to Gehyra baliola from further east in southern New Guinea, and that these species form a clade with Geyhra oceanica. Gehyra is a taxonomically challenging group, and the status of most species from the Melanesian region is in need of review.

中美洲產地衣變色蜥種群的分類回顧以及新種的描述

文獻來源: Köhler G. 2010. A revision of the Central American species related to Anolis pentaprion with the resurrection of A. beckeri and the description of a new species (Squamata: Polychrotidae). Zootaxa 2354: 1-18.

Abstract
Based on differences in coloration, morphometrics, and scalation, I recognize seven species of anoles related to Anolis pentaprion in Central America: Anolis beckeri (southeastern Mexico to northern Nicaragua), A. cristifer (Pacific lowlands of Chiapas to central Guatemala), A. fungosus (Caribbean premontane zone from central Costa Rica to western Panama), A. pentaprion (Caribbean lowlands of southern Nicaragua to northwestern Colombia, also on Pacific versant in central and eastern Panama), A. salvini (Pacific premontane and lower montane zones from central Costa Rica to western Panama), A. utilensis (restricted to Isla de Utila, Honduras), and a new species (from the Pacific lowlands of Costa Rica and western Panama) described herein. The new species differs from A. pentaprion by having a red male dewlap with few large, widely spaced gorgetal scales scattered across the dewlap (pink with purple pigment between rows of gorgetals, and with regular rows of numerous small, narrowly spaced gorgetal scales in A. pentaprion). Furthermore, I resurrect the name A. beckeri Boulenger for the pentaprion-like populations of anoles distributed from southeastern Mexico to northern Nicaragua. Anolis beckeri differs from A. pentaprion most obviously in the dorsal tail scalation (a serrated caudal crest present in A. pentaprion versus no such crest in A. beckeri) and dewlap scalation (gorgetal rows with 17–25 narrowly spaced scales in A. pentaprion versus gorgetal rows with 4–10 widely spaced scales in A. beckeri). Finally, SMF 83608 is proposed as the neotype for Anolis pentaprion. I provide standardized descriptions of A. beckeri, A. pentaprion, and the new species described herein.

2010年2月8日 星期一

長腰絲絨守宮在溫度變動劇烈且天敵環伺之環境下選擇可提供恆定低溫的岩縫產卵

[superlink: wikipedia, photo credit: Hexasoft]

文獻來源: Pike DA, Webb JK, Shine R. 2010.
Nesting in a thermally challenging environment: nest-site selection in a rock-dwelling gecko, Oedura lesueurii (Reptilia: Gekkonidae). Biological Journal of the Linnean Society 99(2): 250-259.


Abstract
In egg-laying species, maternal oviposition choice can influence egg survival and offspring phenotypes. According to the maternal-preference offspring-performance hypothesis, females should choose oviposition sites that are optimal for offspring fitness. However, in thermally challenging environments, maternal oviposition behaviour may be constrained by the limited availability of suitable oviposition sites. We investigated nest-site selection in a nocturnal lizard [velvet gecko Oedura lesueurii (Duméril and Bibron)] that inhabits a thermally challenging environment in south-eastern Australia. The viability of these gecko populations is critical for the persistence of an endangered snake species (Hoplocephalus bungaroides Wagler) that feeds heavily on velvet geckos. Female geckos chose nest sites nonrandomly, with 87% of nests (N = 30) being laid in deep crevices. By contrast, only 13% of clutches were laid under rocks, which were the most readily available potential nest sites. Nest success in crevices was high (100%), but no eggs hatched from nests under rocks. Temperatures in nest crevices remained relatively low and constant throughout the incubation period (mean = 22.7 °C, range 21.0–24.5 °C), whereas thermal regimes under rocks showed large diurnal fluctuations. Geckos selected crevices that were deeper, had less canopy cover, and were warmer than most available crevices; in 85% of cases, such crevices were used simultaneously by more than one female. The thermally distinctive attributes of nest sites, and their frequent communal use, suggest that nest sites are a scarce resource for female velvet geckos, and that the shading of rock outcrops through vegetation encroachment may influence nest success in this species.

花溪鱂(Kryptolebias marmoratus)的雌雄同體自體授精現象可能起源自具有雄性與雌雄同體個體的祖先

[superlink: Wiley Interscience]

文獻來源: Costa WJEM, Lima SMQ, Bartolette R. 2010.
Androdioecy in Kryptolebias killifish and the evolution of self-fertilizing hermaphroditism. Biological Journal of the Linnean Society 99(2): 344-349.

Abstract
Kryptolebias marmoratus is an important experimental fish, and is considered to represent the only vertebrate species comprising self-fertilizing hermaphroditic individuals. Subsequent to the discovery of this unusual mode of reproduction, approximately 50 years ago, K. marmoratus has been the focus of a series of studies. However, little is known about the evolution of this rare reproduction mode, and data on the biology of closely related species are still unavailable. The present study aimed to histologically analyse the gonads of three K. marmoratus congeners (i.e. Kryptolebias ocellatus, Kryptolebias caudomarginatus, and Kryptolebias brasiliensis) to check the distribution of features related to hermaphroditism that are useful for forming hypotheses about the origin and evolution of the self-fertilization mode of reproduction through the available phylogenies. The data obtained demonstrate that populations of K. caudomarginatus consist of males and hermaphrodites, which supports the hypothesis that hermaphroditism arose at the base of the clade containing K. caudomarginatus, K. marmoratus, and K. ocellatus as a first step towards a more advanced condition, uniquely shared by both K. marmoratus and K. ocellatus, in which males are rare or absent in natural populations, with the subsequent occurrence of self-fertilization.

針對Pundamilia nyererei這種慈鯛在清澈與混濁水域中對雄性體色的選擇研究發現雄魚體色與水的清澈度的關係同時由環境因子以及雌魚偏好所操控

[superlink: Wiley Interscience]

文獻來源: Maan ME, Seehausen O, Van Alphen JJM. 2010.
Female mating preferences and male coloration covary with water transparency in a Lake Victoria cichlid fish. Biological Journal of the Linnean Society 99(2): 398-406.


Abstract
Rapid speciation in Lake Victoria cichlid fish of the genus Pundamilia may be facilitated by sexual selection: female mate choice exerts sexual selection on male nuptial coloration within species and maintains reproductive isolation between species. However, declining water transparency coincides with increasingly dull coloration and increasing hybridization. In the present study, we investigated the mechanism underlying this pattern in Pundamilia nyererei, a species that interbreeds with a sister species in turbid but not in clear water. We compared measures of intraspecific sexual selection between two populations from locations that differ in water transparency. First, in laboratory mate-choice experiments, conducted in clear water and under broad-spectrum illumination, we found that females originating from turbid water have significantly weaker preferences for male coloration than females originating from clear water. Second, both the hue and body coverage of male coloration differ between populations, which is consistent with adaptation to different photic habitats. These findings suggest that the observed relationship between male coloration and water transparency is not mediated by environmental variation alone. Rather, female mating preferences are indicated to have changed in response to this variation, constituting the first evidence for intraspecific preference-trait co-evolution in cichlid fish.

僅使用mtDNA序列資訊將誤導澤龜科親緣關係的重建以及數個瀕危物種之保育地位

[superlink: Wiley Intersceicne]

文獻來源: Wiens JJ, Kuczynski CA, Stephens PR. 2010. Discordant mitochondrial and nuclear gene phylogenies in emydid turtles: implications for speciation and conservation. Biological Journal of the Linnean Society 99(2): 445-461.

Abstract
Do phylogenies and branch lengths based on mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) provide a reasonable approximation to those based on multiple nuclear loci? In the present study, we show widespread discordance between phylogenies based on mtDNA (two genes) and nuclear DNA (nucDNA; six loci) in a phylogenetic analysis of the turtle family Emydidae. We also find an unusual type of discordance involving the unexpected homogeneity of mtDNA sequences across species within genera. Of the 36 clades in the combined nucDNA phylogeny, 24 are contradicted by the mtDNA phylogeny, and six are strongly contested by each data set. Two genera (Graptemys, Pseudemys) show remarkably low mtDNA divergence among species, whereas the combined nuclear data show deep divergences and (for Pseudemys) strongly supported clades. These latter results suggest that the mitochondrial data alone are highly misleading about the rate of speciation in these genera and also about the species status of endangered Graptemys and Pseudemys species. In addition, despite a strongly supported phylogeny from the combined nuclear genes, we find extensive discordance between this tree and individual nuclear gene trees. Overall, the results obtained illustrate the potential dangers of making inferences about phylogeny, speciation, divergence times, and conservation from mtDNA data alone (or even from single nuclear genes), and suggest the benefits of using large numbers of unlinked nuclear loci.

2010年2月7日 星期日

2010-02-07新進魚隻

"Brochis" splendens 青銅鼠 (據說嘴有長一點的) x 2
"Brochis" britskii (???) 巨無霸鼠 (據說頭上點點很多但背鰭軟條數較少的) x 4
Corydoras sp. cf. blochi Manaus 灰甲鼠 x 6

雖然大多數的鼠魚愛好者仍然將Brochis當成一個分類單元, 然而Britto等人根據形態特徵所重建的親緣關係假說指出Brochis其實只是Corydoras的一個衍生群, 這也就是說, Brochis其實並不是一個有效的屬. 這樣的觀點其實已經被我們的研究與英國另一個團隊的研究結果所支持. 這也就是說, 所謂的巨無霸鼠青銅鼠的體型變大, 或是背鰭的軟條變多, 只是這幾個物種所代表的演化支系的獨有衍徵, 但並不構成Brochis被是為有別於Corydoras的理由. 所謂的青銅鼠其實是一個有趣的東西, 目前被鑑定為青銅鼠的物種分布很廣, 但是各地區的青銅鼠是否都同屬於一個物種仍有相當的疑問. 我不是非常確定吻型與頭部是否具有斑點所代表的意涵, 這部份可能要等我們有夠多的樣本才能釐清. 鼠魚研究進展之所以非常緩慢的原因主要是因為大多數在寵物市場上流通的個體的確實採集來源是不知道的, 因為這些來源並不清楚, 即使我們把非常多的"同種"個體拿去抽抽DNA, 定了序, 我們仍然無法得知遺傳上的差異倒底是"族群內"或"族群間"的差異.

那隻"頭上很多點點的巨無霸鼠"的背鰭軟條只有8-11條, 與britskii高達15-18個軟條的差異有點大, 所以那是什麼東東呢? 身上的點點讓我想起CW034, 可是這隻背鰭條只有8條的東東應該不會是CW034. 好妙啊~~~

魚隻來源: 悠游魚

根據六個核DNA序列資訊分析鰍超科之親緣關係確認鰍超科包含八個科, 而東南亞產低唇魚(Ellopostoma)應移入新科 - 低唇魚科(Ellopostomatidae)

[superlink: Wiley Interscience]

文獻來源: Chen WJ (
台大海研所陳韋仁老師), Lheknim V, Mayden R. 2010. Molecular phylogeny of the Cobitoidea (Teleostei: Cypriniformes) revisited: position of enigmatic loach Ellopostoma resolved with six nuclear genes. Journal of Fish Biology 75(9): 2197-2208.


Abstract
Molecular variation in six nuclear genes provides substantive phylogenetic evidence for the recognition of a new cypriniform family, the Ellopostomatidae, to include the enigmatic Southern Asia loach genus Ellopostoma. The current six loach families form a monophyletic group, with the Nemacheilidae as the sister group to Ellopostomatidae; Vaillantellidae forms the sister group to all families exclusive of Botiidae. While the superfamily Cobitoidea includes eight families, the monophyly of this large clade within the Cypriniformes remains a vexing problem despite extensive molecular analyses and is in need of further investigation.

2010年2月6日 星期六

2010-01-06新進魚隻

Bagrichthys macracanthus 一線駱駝 x 4
Roeboides sp. cf. myersii 隆背大暴牙 (難以鑑定啊) x 3

買這三隻隆背大暴牙買得我心理怕怕的, 因為Roeboides這個類群的魚是有名的食鱗魚, 帶回來養不就是自找麻煩嗎? 以下幾篇文章算是近10年來對於Roeboides的食鱗性, 齒列構造的個體發生關係進行研究與回顧整理較完整的研究, 在這幾篇文章中不約而同地提到多數的Roeboides在小時候都是食蟲性的, 然後隨著成長漸漸成為食鱗性, 只有部份種類是吃小魚, 或偶食鱗片. 所以說, 這類魚的混養性應該很低, 而且應該避免與其它同類型的魚混養, 不過今天買回來之前, 在店家的缸中隆背大暴牙與印度枯葉虎擺在一起看起來相安無事, 這究竟是因為: (1) 枯葉虎躲在枯木中所以沒事? (2) 隆背大暴牙對枯葉虎沒興趣? (3) 對這個種來說, 只要有餵飽, 鱗片就變得不是首要的食物來源? (4) 這個種的成魚真的對鱗片沒興趣?

相關文獻:
Hahn NS, Pavanelli CS, Okada EK. 2000. Dental development and ontogenetic diet shifts of Roeboides paranensis Pignalberi (osteichthyes, characinae) in pools of the Upper Rio Paraná floodplain (State of Paraná, Brazil). Revista Brasileira de Biologia 60(1): doi: 10.1590/S0034-71082000000100012
Novakowski GC, Fugi R, Hahn NS. 2004. Diet and dental development of three species of Roeboides (Characiformes: Characidae). Neotropical Ichthyology 2(3): doi: 10.1590/S1679-62252004000300008
Peterson CC, Winemiller KO. 2004. Ontogenic diet shifts and scale-eating in Roeboides dayi, a Neotropical characid. Environmental Biology of Fishes 49(1): 111-118.
Peterson CC, McIntyre P. 2004. Ontogenetic diet shifts in Roeboides affinis with morphological comparisons. Enviornmental Biology of Fishes 53(1): 105-110.

魚隻來源: 永信水族(華夏店)

2010年2月5日 星期五

越南南部金甌省產東虎屬一新種 - Cnemaspis psychedelica

[photo provided by Dr. Ngo Van Tri]
文獻來源: Grismer LL, Ngo VT, Drismer JL. 2010. A colorful new species of insular rock gecko (Cnemaspis Strauch 1887) from southern Vietnam. Zootaxa 2352: 46-58.

Abstract
A new species of endemic, insular Cnemaspis is described from Hon Khoai Island, Ca Mau Province, Ngoc Hien District, 18 km off the southern tip of the Ca Mu Peninsula in southern Vietnam. Cnemaspis psychedelica sp. nov. is the most uniquely colored of all southeast Asian Cnemaspis in that both sexes and all age classes have bright orange forelimbs, forelegs, hands and feet; a bright orange tail; a dense, yellow reticulum on the neck overlying thick, black, longitudinal lines; and a blue-gray to light purple trunk bearing yellow transverse bars on bright-orange flanks. It also differs from all other species of Cnemaspis in aspects of size and squamation. Cnemaspis psychedelica is the third insular endemic species of Cnemaspis from Vietnam and brings the total number of species in Vietnam to six. Its occurrence on one of the 92 islands in Rach Gia Bay underscores the necessity for continued surveys of these poorly known islands that are beginning to show a surprising degree of endemism and diversity.

2010-02-05新進動物與魚隻

Testudo horsfieldi 四趾陸龜 x 4
Geochelone elegans 星龜 x 1
Geochelone platynota 緬甸星龜 x 2
Yunnanilus cruciatus 十字小條鰍(=斑節泳鰍) x 10
Serpenticobitis octozona (???) 八帶蛇鰍(=墨斑鰍) x 10
Nemacheilus longistriatus 長帶條鰍(=老撾黑線鰍) x 10
Rasbora sarawakensis 沙勞越燈 x 10
血紅櫻桃蝦(這是?) x 5
蘇拉維西黑水晶蝦(這是?) x 5 (反正不是蘇拉維西的)
貴賓蝦(這是?) x 5

基本上我對那些條鰍的鑑定有很大的疑問....不過Balitoridae的這些條鰍啦, 雲南鰍之類的, 挺好玩的. 不像鰍科的Botia令人有亂咬魚的疑慮, 也不太容易生病 (只要不得白點都OK), 餵食的時候也有一點小互動.

魚隻來源: 華洋水族

2010年2月3日 星期三

[工商服務]熱帶植物保種中心徵求水生植物專職管理人才

位於屏東高樹鄉, 並由辜嚴倬雲植物保種基金會所支持的熱帶植物保種中心徵求水生植物專業管理人才, 說明如下:
  • 工作內容: 專職負責中心之水生植物收集(國內外皆可), 栽培規畫與管理事宜
  • 應徵資格: 學經歷不限, 但需要對水生植物有專業之認知(分類, 栽培條件, 市場訊息, 硬體設備等), 並有工作之熱情
  • 待遇: 比照國科會專任助理之待遇
  • 應徵方式: 請將相關之學經歷或工作經驗整理好, 寄給我或國立清華大學生命科學系李家維教授
  • 應徵期限: 徵到滿意的人為止

2010-02-03新進魚隻與開年最大冏

[superlink: Aquarium Space樂天市場店]
Steatocranus tinanti 長身猴頭鯛* x 4 (好久不見的老牌西非觀賞魚)
Helostoma temminckii 接吻魚(野生型)# x 2
Helostoma temminckii 接吻魚(粉紅型, 但不是球魚)# x 2
Poropanchax brichardi (=Apolocheilichthys brichardi)
布氏燈鱂 (=剛果將, 紅翅七彩藍眼鱂)* x 25
Mastacembelus sp. cf. cryptacanthus 紅背大蟒蛇棘鰍* x 4
Mastacembelus sp. cf. alboguttatus or congicus (?) 血蘭花棘鰍* x 4
Caecomastacembelus greshoffi 非洲豹紋棘鰍 (以坦干伊喀鰻名義進口) (=網紋大理石棘鰍) x 15 (樂天市場的圖)
Alestopetersius sp. cf. nigropterus 火燄剛果 x 10
Mormyrops sp. cf. attenuatus or sirenoides 巨人喇叭一 x 7
Mormyrops anguilloides (?) 巨人喇叭二 x 3
Polypterus delhezi 斑節恐龍(像Aqua Bonito那麼有節的人工魚) x 7
Puntius terio 一點魮(以印度鯽名義販售) x 若干
Puntius sp. cf. chola
類似沼澤無鬚魮(以印度鯽名義販售) x 若干
還有其它神秘不會鑑定之特特珍種魚

今日主題是: 大冏之日(見fb), 以及那些看起來應該要拿去炒韭菜或當歸的年菜系列但名字威到爆的棘鰍....[待續]

魚隻來源: 台族水族, 石頭水族 & APT*, 公園水族(高雄)#

2010年2月2日 星期二

哥倫比亞太平洋側聖胡安河支流產魮脂鲤屬新種 - Hyphessobrycon sebastiani

文獻來源: Garcia-Alzate CA, Roman-Valencia C, Taphorn DC. 2010. A new species of Hyphessobrycon (Teleostei: Characiformes: Characidae) from the San Juan River drainage, Pacific versant of Colombia. Zootaxa 2349: 55-64.

Abstract
We describe a new species, Hyphessobrycon sebastiani, from the San Juan River drainage of the Pacific versant of Colombia. This new species of Hyphessobrycon is distinguished from all congeners that share two humeral spots and no caudal blotch by having: five unbranched and 25 to 28 branched anal–fin rays; 12–13 branched pectoral–fin rays; 35–37 scales in the longitudinal series; eight scales between the lateral line and the dorsal–fin origin; 12–13 predorsal scales; 13–18 pored lateral–line scales and three pairs of large bony hooks on anal fin of mature males.